The Rise of the Great Nations

【双语】海洋时代:葡萄牙
时间:2015-01-06 单词数:3560

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导读:公元1500年前后的地理大发现,拉开了不同国家相互对话和相互竞争的历史大幕。五百年来,在人类现代化进程的大舞台上,相继出现了十个世界性大国,它们是葡萄牙、西班牙、荷兰、英国、法国、德国、日本、俄罗斯、美国和中国。大国兴衰更替的故事,留下了各具特色的发展道路和经验教训,启迪着今天,也影响着未来……

Age of Seafaring: Portugal

海洋时代:葡萄牙

Most historians believe that the year 1500 AD is an important boundary in human history as it is since that time that human history can be called the world history in real sense. Before that, humans lived separately in several lands and no one could definitely tell whether the earth is square or round and almost all the people on the different lands thought they were in the center of the world.

绝大多数历史学家认为:公元1500年前后是人类历史的一个重要分水岭,从那个时候开始,人类的历史才称得上是真正意义上的世界史。在此之前,人类生活在相互隔绝而又各自独立的几块陆地上,没有哪一块大陆上的人能确切地知道,地球究竟是方的还是圆的,而几乎每一块陆地上的人都认为自己生活在世界的中心。

What is unbelievable is that it is not the European economic and cultural centers that unveil the world history, but the two small countries in the southwest of Europe—Portugal and Spain. And Portugal can be called the first colonial empire.

然而令人不可思议的是,开启人类这一历史大幕的,并不是当时欧洲的经济和文化中心,而是偏居在欧洲大陆西南角上两个面积不大的国家——葡萄牙和西班牙。而葡萄牙可以称得上是第一个殖民大国。

Portugal is located in the Iberian Peninsula. In the 15th century, under the command of Prince Enrique, generations of navigators in Portugal opened a navigation line from the Atlantic to India through way of Cape of Good Hope.

葡萄牙位于伊比利亚半岛。15世纪,在恩里克王子的指挥下,葡萄牙一代代的航海家们开辟了从大西洋往南绕过好望角到达印度的航线。

There are specific reasons for the small Portugal to unveil the curtain of navigation expansion. Firstly, it is the political reasons. At that time, Portugal was stable in politics and was able to conduct large-scale exploration. Secondly, it is the geographical reasons. As is known to all, Portugal is surrounded by lands and next to big countries. Small territorial area and limited resources force it to find way through the ocean. Yet, the most important reason is to explore gold, silver and spice. The popular book “The Travels of Marco Polo” described the East as a place filled with gold and silver, which induced the Westerner’ enormous longing for the East. Another important purpose was to preach the Christianity to other parts of the world.

小国葡萄牙拉开航海扩张有其独特的原因。首先是政治制度的原因。当时的葡萄牙国内政治稳定,有能力进行大规模的探险。其次是地理原因。众所周知,葡萄牙三面陆地,比邻强国,而自身又国土面积狭小,资源有限,除了从海上寻求出路,别无办法。最重要的是为了寻求黄金白银和香料。当年,《马可波罗游记》将东方描述成黄金白银遍地的地方,引起西方人对东方的无限向往。 另外还有一个很重要的目的在于向世界其它地区传播基督教。

Yet there is an ever lasting truth” when you have a boom, you have a bust.” The once-stellar Portugal inevitably declined and fell. Small population and territorial space have limited the development of Portugal and the most important reason is that Portugal haven’t developed its industry and commerce and only colonial plunder couldn’t support the development of the whole nation.

然而盛极必衰是永恒的真谛。风光一时的葡萄牙还是避免不了走向衰亡的命运。其主要原因是由于人口少,地方小,导致葡萄牙发展后劲不足。更重要的原因是葡萄牙没有及时发展工商业,仅仅依靠殖民掠夺是不足以支撑整个国家的发展的。

来源:爱语吧爱语吧作者:Tina

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