Age of Seafaring: Spain

【双语】海洋时代:西班牙
时间:2015-01-06 单词数:3430

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导读:15世纪,欧洲最早的两个民族国家葡萄牙和西班牙,在国家力量的支持下进行了航海冒险,而他们的这一系列的探险行为不仅改变了本国的命运,同样改变了整个世界发展的进程。

Age of Seafaring: Spain

海洋时代:西班牙

It was Spain that conducted the opening of new sea-route and colonial expansion at almost the same time with Portugal. Located in southwest of Europe and bordered by Portugal on the west and Bay of Biscay in the north, Spain began to be a single country in the 15th century and was an important headstream that influenced the world. Its influence as a world empire is that about 500 million people in the world speak Spain, making Spain the third most spoken language in the world.

几乎与葡萄牙同时进行新航路开辟和殖民扩张的是西班牙。西班牙位于欧洲西南部,西邻同处于伊比利亚半岛的葡萄牙,北濒比斯开湾,至15世纪始建立单一国家,在近代史上是影响其他地区文化的一个重要发源地。其全球帝国兴盛时给世界带来的影响是,现今全球有5亿人口使用西班牙语,使西班牙语成为世界上总使用人数第三多的语言。

Under the support of Spain Queen Isabel, Columbus arrived at the American Continent in 1492 on behalf of Spain. Also, under the support of Spain royal family, Magellan finished the first voyage round the world, the world which was separated before was finally connected as a whole world, thus creating a world-class power. Portugal and Spain competed to carve up the world and set up a colonization empire all over the world through new navigation line and colonial plunder and reached their height in the first half of the 16th century, becoming the first generation of world powers.

在西班牙伊莎贝尔女王的资助下,1492年哥伦布代表西班牙抵达了美洲。同样,1520年左右,麦哲伦在西班牙王室的资助下完成了人类第一次环球航行,原先割裂的世界终于由地理大发现连接成一个完整的世界,世界性大国也就此诞生。西班牙和葡萄牙在相互竞争中瓜分世界,依靠新航线和殖民掠夺建立起势力遍布全球的殖民帝国,并在16世纪上半叶达到鼎盛时期,成为第一代世界大国。

Compared with Portugal, Spain is relatively large in territory and has a big population and is able to conduct the government’s strategy to set up a colonial empire with central authority. There is also contingency for the successful navigation expansion of Spain as the whole nation has been focused on independence and unification for a hundred years and is void of great leaders and navigators as Portugal has. It didn’t make long term preparation of technology and experts for the navigation expansion. The setting up of overseas colonial empire of Spain was partly due to admiration for and imitation of Portugal’s overseas empire and in most part due to the casual finding of foreign navigators.

与葡萄牙相比,西班牙的优势在于土地广袤和人口众多,有能力行使政府的战略,建立了真正的中央集权模式的领土殖民帝国。西班牙海外扩张成功的偶然性极大,由于整个民族专注于长达数百年的独立和统一运动,它缺乏像葡萄牙拥有的杰出的领导和航海家,对海外扩张并没有做长期的技术积累和人力储备。西班牙海外帝国的建立是出于对葡萄牙海外帝国的羡慕和仿效,而其很大程度上得益于几大外国航海家的偶然发现。

The reason why Spain declined and fell is that the wealth taken from colonial empire cannot push forward the technological progress and induce social and economic revolution and therefore cannot support the empire eternally.

西班牙衰落的原因是殖民帝国的财富不能有效地推动技术进步,也不能引发社会与经济革命,因此无法长久的维持帝国的强大。

来源:爱语吧爱语吧作者:Tina

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