The Pioneer of Industrialization: Britain

【双语】工业先声:英国
时间:2015-01-07 单词数:3410

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导读:从北京往西大约8000公里,就是欧亚大陆的西部终端。从这里跨过一道海峡,有一个岛国,国名叫“大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国”,我们通常称作“英国”。这个国家的面积仅有24万平方公里,在今天也只有6000万人口,但是在世界近代历史上,它却占有非常特殊的地位:它是第一个迈进现代社会的国家。

The Pioneer of Industrialization: Britain

工业先声:英国

Lies in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the European continent, Britain defeated Spanish Armada in 1588 and set foot on the world stage since then. In stepping from the Middle Ages to modern society, the powerful monarchy has been a key point. Queen Elizabeth I encouraged maritime exploration and trade, managed the state affairs with an enlightened attitude and comprised in dealing with social conflicts, all of which made this marginal island country embrace its early glory.

与欧洲大陆隔海相望的英国,在1588年与西班牙无敌舰队的海战中大获全胜,就此逐步登上世界舞台。从中世纪走向现代社会的过程中,强有力的君主制成为关键的一环。女王伊丽莎白一世对海洋探险和贸易的鼓励、开明的治国态度和处理社会矛盾的妥协手段,使这个地处边缘的岛国,迎来了早期的辉煌。

Yet the following King Charles I adhered to divine right of kings which violated the rules that kings must obey the law stipulated in the Magna Carta in the 15th century. The King declared a four-year- war with the parliament and was sentenced to death after defeated. At last, Britain gradually set up the constitutional monarchy through Glorious Revolution and transformed to the modern society. 

 但是,接下来的国王查理一世却因为坚信君权神授,违背了英国早在13世纪时由《大宪章》所确定的国王必须遵守法律的原则,和议会之间进行了一场为时四年的内战,战败后的查理一世被宣判死刑。最终,英国通过光荣革命,逐步建立起君主立宪制,完成了向现代社会的转型。

With Britain’s colonial expansion and maturity of its overseas market, there was increasing demand for goods, yet handcraft workshop could not satisfy the need. To encourage innovation and creation, Britain issued the earliest “Patent Law” in the world. When Isaac Newton discovered the law that governs the universe, the scientific spirit penetrated to every corner of Britain; when Watt solved the power problem with the all-powerful steam engine, Britain’s industrialization developed in full swing in an amazing speed; when Adam Smith pointed out the market law in”The Wealth of Nations”, the British began to promote free trade and expand into the world market based on its own strong industry. Through all of these, Britain became the first industrialized country in the world. And in the process, Britain defeated France and became the number one colonial empire in the world.

随着英国殖民扩张和海外市场的成熟,商品的需求量越来越大,手工工场的生产已经不能满足需要。为了鼓励发明创造,英国颁布了世界上最早的《专利法》。当牛顿发现了宇宙运行的规律后,科学的精神渗透到英国社会中;当瓦特最终以万能蒸汽机解决了最核心的动力问题后,英国工业化开始以惊人的速度全面展开;当亚当·斯密以《国富论》指出了自由竞争的市场规律后,英国人开始在本国强大工业能力的支持下,推行自由贸易,拓展全球市场。在各种合力下,英国成为世界上第一个工业化国家。在此期间,英国打败了强邻法国,成为全球第一大殖民帝国。

Since the second half of the 19th century, the colonies have increasingly become Britain’s burden and the drawback of free market economy became obvious. Therefore, Britain gradually slowed down in development and finally lost its position as the world hegemony.

19世纪中后期开始,殖民地日益成为英帝国的负担,而自由市场经济的弊端也逐渐显现,英国的发展开始减慢,最终丧失了世界霸主的地位。

来源:爱语吧爱语吧作者:Tina

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