Seeking the Way to Strengthen the Nation: Russia

【双语】寻道图强:沙俄
时间:2015-01-09 单词数:3420

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导读:在亚欧大陆北部的这片广袤的土地上,有一个世界上国土面积最大的国家—俄罗斯联邦。几个世纪以来,生活在这片土地上的民族,在世界舞台上扮演了特殊的角色。一方面,为了追赶欧洲强国的现代化步伐,它的一代君主曾以学生身份四处寻师问道;另一方面,它又凭借传统的君主统制和强大的军事力量,扩张成为地跨欧亚美三大洲的大帝国,并以欧洲事务仲裁者的身份逞雄一时。

Seeking the Way to Strengthen the Nation: Russia

寻道图强:沙俄

In 1697, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great went to Europe to travel and study. After coming back, with tough means he carried out a social reform from dress, meal to scientific education, commercial activity and army building. After defeating the powerful enemy Sweden, Peter ordered to build a new capital St. Petersburg which faced Europe.

1697年,俄国沙皇彼得一世前往欧洲各国游历和学习。归来后,他用强硬手段推行了一场社会变革。从穿衣、吃饭,到科学教育、商业活动、军队建设,彼得用野蛮的方式推进了俄罗斯的文明进程。在打败了强敌瑞典之后,彼得下令建造起一个面向欧洲的新首都圣彼得堡。

Catherine the Great who inherited Peter’s reform introduced Europe’s enlightenment thought, added importance to education and tried to draft law, yet the reform couldn’t confront the serf system. The queen’s achievements can only be seen through the territorial expansion. By the latter part of the 18th century, Russia had become a big country that was straddling Europe, Asia and America and began to play an important role in the European affairs.

继承彼得改革的女皇叶卡捷琳娜二世引进欧洲的启蒙思想,重视教育,并试图起草法律,但改革无法触动农奴制。女皇的业绩最终只能表现在领土扩张上,在18世纪后期,俄罗斯成为地跨欧亚美的大国,并成为欧洲事务中的重要角色。

Yet due to the serf system, Russia quickly fell behind the industrialized Britain and France in economy and technology. A group of intellectuals like Leo Tolstoy hoped to find their own way and it was in this thinking that Russia gradually created its own civilization.  

但是,农奴制使俄罗斯很快在经济、技术领域落后于完成了工业化的英法等国。列夫·托尔斯泰等一批俄罗斯知识分子希望能够找到一条自己的道路。正是在这样的思考中,俄罗斯逐渐创造了属于自己的独特文明。

Soviet regime was established after the October Revolution in 1917. When exploring the socialist way that had never been tried before, Lenin adjusted the communism policy into New Economic Policy according to the practice and the economy gradually recovered. After Lenin died and faced with the international environment of blockage and war threat, Stalin decided to step up the industrialization process and began to conduct the planned economy with emphasis on heavy industry. Through two five-year plans, the Soviet Union leaped to become a big industrial country which surprised Europe and America. Glory of the industrialization covered up the drawback of planned economy and quickly the coming World War II tested its outcome. Soviet Union’s new industrial district and her people’s sacrifice won them the war and the deserved position as a responsible power. Today, the Russian are striving for their national rejuvenation and its future is worthy of expectation.

1917年,苏维埃政权在十月革命后诞生。在探索从未有人实践过的社会主义道路时,列宁根据实际情况的需要,及时将战时共产主义政策调整为新经济政策,苏联经济逐渐复苏。列宁去世后,在面临封锁和战争威胁的国际境下,斯大林决定加快工业化进程,开始实施计划经济,优先发展重工业。随着两个五年计划的完成,苏联一跃成为工业强国,令欧美各国惊叹不已。工业化成就的光芒掩盖了苏联高度集中的指令性计划经济模式的弊端。而很快到来的二战检验了这一工业化成果。苏联新工业区的威力和苏联人民的巨大牺牲,使它赢得了战争的胜利,也赢得了一个负责任的大国应有的地位。今天,俄罗斯人正在为民族复兴而努力,这个民族的未来值得期待。

来源:爱语吧爱语吧作者:Tina

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