Grave of the Fireflies: The haunting relevance of Studio Ghibli’s darkest film

《萤火虫之墓》:吉卜力工作室最阴暗电影的难忘映射
时间:2018-04-16 单词数:8910

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导读:《萤火虫之墓》,最不像吉卜力工作室的一部动画杰作,时隔三十年,在当今动荡的国际社会风云变幻中又被提起,它又有什么内容发人深省?

《萤火虫之墓》:吉卜力工作室最阴暗电影的难忘映射__双语新闻

Japanese animation giant Studio Ghibli is renowned for light-hearted classics like My Neighbour Totoro but 30 years ago it released Grave of the Fireflies, a war anime with a powerful message that still reverberates.

日本动画制作巨头吉卜力工作室以像《龙猫》这样轻松愉悦的经典作品闻名,但三十年前他们发布了《萤火虫之墓》,这是一个带有强烈信息的战争漫画,时至今日反响不断。

Based on Akiyuki Nosaka’s 1967 novel anddirected by the legendary Japanese animator Isao Takahatawho died earlier this month, it tells the story of two orphans and their desperate struggle to survive the final months of World War Two.

改编自野坂昭如1967年的小说,并由本月早些时候刚去世的日本传奇动画师高畑勋指导,故事讲述了两个孤儿在二战最后几个月为了生存的绝望挣扎。

The show’s ending is foreshadowed from the start. All alone, a young boy Seita succumbs to starvation and dies at the Sannomiya Railway Station. Among his possessions discovered by a janitor: a sweet tin containing ashes and some bone fragments. The seemingly innocuous container is discarded in a nearby field, releasing his spirit which rises up and reunites with the ghost of his four-year-old sister Setsuko.

故事的结局在开篇已经预射出来。年幼男孩清太在三宫火车站屈于饥饿孤单死去。清洁工在他的遗留物中发现了一个装有一些灰烬和骨骼碎片的糖果锡罐。这个看似无关痛痒的容器被丢弃在了附近的田地里,这一举动使他的灵魂升天并和他四岁妹妹节子的魂魄团聚。

Fireflies surround the siblings and their story begins. "September 21, 1945. That was the day I died," Seita says in a haunting narration.

萤火虫围绕在这对兄妹身边,他们的故事也顺势展开。“1945年9月21日,那一天我死了,”清太以难以忘怀的陈述方式娓娓道来。

Grave of the Fireflies may bear the Ghibli name but it is by no means a conventional children’s movie. It is harrowing and distinct from its feel-good predecessors, which may have deterred many viewers. But the late film critic and historian Roger Ebert proclaimed it to be "one of the greatest war films ever made".

《萤火虫之墓》或许挂了吉卜力的名号,但是它绝不是一个传统意义上的儿童电影。影片使人悲伤,与之前许多令人愉悦的动画电影不同,这或许阻止了许多人的观影欲望。但是已故的电影评论者历史学家Roger Ebert赞扬该作品是“有史以来最棒的战争题材影片”。

"Since the earliest days, animated films have been ’cartoons’ for children and families," he said in a review back in 2000. "But these films exist within safe confines, inspiring tears but not grief. Grave of the Fireflies is an emotional experience so powerful that it forces a rethinking of animation."

“自早期以来,动画电影就被定义为给孩子和家庭看的卡通片,”他说道,“他们在安全的范围内会激发出观众的眼泪却戳不到痛处。《萤火虫之墓》展现的是一场感人至深的体验,情感如此强烈以至于它迫使我们去重新定位动画制作。”

The anime takes place during the US bombing of Japan, waged in the closing phase of World War Two and which included the firebombing of Kobe city.

该动画故事发生在美国轰炸日本期间,处于二战末期,包含燃烧弹袭击神户城的内容。

With any war, tragedy is inevitable and the strength in the storytelling lies in Takahata’s first-hand experiences, having himself survived a devastating air raid on his coastal hometown of Ise.

任何战争中,悲剧都是无法避免的,故事叙事的渲染力来自高畑勋的亲身经历,他从家乡沿海城市伊势的一场毁灭性空袭中幸存下来。

Rich with detail and impressionistic effects, the Studio Ghibli co-founder’s masterpiece brings to life the human impact of war.

以丰富的故事内容和印象深刻的故事效果,吉卜力工作室共同创立者的杰出作品将人类在战争方面的影响力带入了生活中。

Roland Kelts, author ofJapanamerica, remembers a particularly tragic but "mesmerisingly beautiful" scene.

《日本美国》的作者Roland Kelts记得一个尤为悲伤但却出乎意料美丽的场面。

"We see a group of fisherman gazing out over the bay as the city of Kobe goes up in flames on the horizon. The flames lick at the sky and the fishermen are seen from the back," he told BBC News.

“我们看到当神户城在天边于火舌中毁于一旦,一群渔夫向海湾远处姚望。火焰舔舐苍穹,渔夫的背影映入眼帘,”他这样告诉BBC新闻。

"The stillness of disaster. Nothing is moving but we feel their shock. It’s a scene of pure shell shock, as gorgeous as it is terrifying."

“灾难静止。画面里没有风吹草动,但是我们感受到他们的震惊。这是一个纯粹真实的有关于炮弹休克的场面,与其画面内容的恐怖一样美丽。”

1.Surviving war

从战争中存活下来

Today, the film remains not only relevant but more important than ever, according to Lim Beng Choo, an associate professor in Japanese studies.

今天,根据日本研究副教授 Lim Beng Choo的解释,该电影不仅仅只是意义非凡,而且比任何时候都更加重要。

"Grave of the Fireflies is an important film because it emphasises (among other things) the value of life. While it depicts the irreversible tragedies and sufferings that Japanese people had to endure during the war, viewers should also actively be asking why and how World War Two was allowed to happen," Ms Lim said.

“《萤火虫之墓》是一部非常重要的电影,因为它(在该故事其他主题中)强调了生命的价值。当影片展现了故事情节不可逆转的悲剧和日本民众不得不在战争中忍受的苦难的时候,观影者必须也要积极地去质问为什么以及怎样第二次世界大战被允许发生了,”Lim女士说道。

"Knowing Japan’s historical military past will also give the audience a better understanding of events and will cultivate a generic humanistic sentiment towards all war, which would prove to be a more effective way of preventing future wars."

“知晓日本历史上军队的过往事迹会同样使观众更加了解事件详情,从而培养出对所有战争都怀揣一般的人道主义的情感,该举措将会被证明是预防未来战争更加有效的方法。”

Japanamerica’s Roland Kelts added: "Grave of the Fireflies is a story richly told, with all the ambiguity and second-guesses of the way life is lived. Its story remains relevant today because of that fact alone. It tells about the failure of heroism and nobility in desperate circumstances and in that way, it’s almost an anti-Hollywood film".

《日本美国》的作者 Roland Kelts补充道:“《萤火虫之墓》以其全篇含糊的不确切性和事后诸葛的方法推测活过生命的生命轨迹,成为了一个内容展现丰富的故事。因为事件本身,电影故事今天依旧意义非凡。它描述了英雄主义的失败,在绝境中人格的高尚,从这层面来说,它几乎成为了反好莱坞式的电影。”

"Hollywood will have you believe that heroes are needed when times are tough. Isao Takahata shows us the humble opposite, that when times are tough what you need most is humility, patience and self-restraint. That’s how one survives."

“好莱坞使你相信当生活变得艰难,时代就会需要英雄。高畑勋向我们展示了这一观点的卑微反面,当时代民不聊生,你最需要的是谦卑,耐心和自制力。这样人才可以存活下来。”

2.Icon of hope

希望的象征

Grave of the Fireflies may have earned a reputation as being one of the darkest Ghibli films ever made. But that has not stopped loyal fans from reviving debate around the "underrated" film and its poignant lessons, with the discussion still vibrant 30 years on from its release. For many, its message about the human impact of war still resonates strongly.

《萤火虫之墓》或许得到了吉卜力工作室从影以来最阴暗电影的称号。但是那没有阻止忠实粉丝围绕这个“被低估”了的电影和它主题所诠释的尖锐教训展开反复讨论。

"If anyone thinks anime is only made up of over-the-top facial expressions, a lot of sexual content and corny teen romance, watch Grave of the Fireflies and prepare to be proven 100% wrong," wrote a fan on YouTube.

“如果任何一个人认为漫画只是由夸张的面部表情,许多色情内容和低俗的少年罗曼史组成的,那么就看看《萤火虫之墓》吧,百分之百会证明他是错的,”一个粉丝在油管上留言。

On Reddit, one anime fan focused on the symbolism of fireflies: "The firefly becomes a haunting symbol of the film as it represents both the deadly fire bombs that wrecked the children’s city but as well as an icon of hope and perseverance".

在社交媒体网站Reddit上,一个漫画粉丝聚焦在萤火虫的象征意义上:“萤火虫成为了该电影一个难以忘怀的标志,因为它既代表了摧毁孩子们家乡城市的致命火焰弹,同时又代表了希望与坚韧的象征。”

"In the wake of the Trump administration and nationalism capturing the minds of millions around the world, this movie has never been more necessary," said Ghibli fan Rebecca Lee on Facebook.

“随着特朗普执政以及民族主义观念在全世界范围内洗脑数百万人,这部电影变得前所未有的必要。”吉卜力粉丝Rebecca Lee 在脸书上说。

"Know that this movie is a metaphor for World War Two and is so much more than the death of these two characters. Grave of the Fireflies is about the consequences of blind unchecked nationalism and the bitter end of those that follow it. This film is not a masterpiece because it’s sad, it’s a masterpiece because of the lessons it teaches."

“要知道这部电影暗指第二次世界大战,其意义要大过两个主人公的死。”《萤火虫之墓》里的惨状是不加抑制的民族主义肆意横行的后果以及它苦涩结局的连锁反应。这部电影因其悲痛不可为一部杰作,但它可借鉴的经验教训可使其成为一部佳作。”

来源:BBC爱语吧作者:Lucyandbill

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