Where humans still beat computers"人脑PK计算机" 人类智慧的褪色? 时间:2018-06-30 单词数:2710
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In 2011 Hector Levesque of the University of Toronto became annoyed by systems that “passed” the Turing Test by joking and avoiding direct answers.
He later asked to borrow MrWinograd’s name and the format of his dissertation’s puzzle to pose a more genuine test of machine “understanding”: the Winograd Schema.
The answers to its battery of questions were obvious to humans but would require computers to have some reasoning ability and some knowledge of the real world.
The first official Winograd Schema Challenge was held this year, with a $25,000 prize offered by Nuance, the language-software company, for a program that could answer more than 90% of the questions correctly.
The best of them got just 58% right. Though officially retired, MrWinograd continues writing and researching.
One of his students is working on an application for Google Glass, a computer with a display mounted on eyeglasses.
The app would help people withautismby reading the facial expressions of conversation partners and giving the wearer information about their emotional state.
It would allow him to integratelinguistic and non-linguistic information in a way that people with autism find difficult, as do computers.
Asked to trick some of the latest digital assistants, like Siri and Alexa, he asks them things like “Where can I find a nightclub my Methodistuncle would like?”, which requires knowledge about both nightclubs (which such systems have) and Methodist uncles (which they don’t).
When he tried “Where did I leave my glasses?”, one of them came up with a link to a book of that name.
None offered the obvious answer: “How would I know?”
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