The Rise and Fall of China’s ‘Stout,’ ‘Dark’ and ‘Not Pretty’ Pop Star

挑战中国“白瘦美”审美的王菊
时间:2018-07-04 单词数:9030

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导读:《创造101》是一个大受欢迎的在线选秀,但令大家奇怪的是曾被各路中国媒体形容为“胖”、“黑”、“丑”的王菊取得了排名第二的成绩,中国评论人士不知该作何解释。

挑战中国“白瘦美”审美的王菊_最新英语新闻

BEIJING - For a moment, it looked as if China’s rigid beauty standards were on the brink of being upended - or at least expanded slightly.

北京——有那么一刻,中国僵硬的审美标准看来似乎即将被颠覆——或者至少略微扩展了一些。

“Produce 101,” a popular online talent show, puts women through their paces for one of 11 spots in a female pop band; at first, Wang Ju, a 25-year-old model manager who’d almost lost her place on the show earlier in the season, seemed an unlikely candidate for success. But over the course of a few weeks in June, Ms. Wang rode a mounting wave of public affection to find herself, as of midmonth, ranked second among the show’s 22 finalists. Suddenly, Chinese commentators were at pains to explain just how Ms. Wang - a woman Chinese media variously referred to as “stout,” “dark” and “not pretty enough” - got there.

《创造101》是一个大受欢迎的在线选秀,让女选手们为一个流行女团的11个位置展开竞争;起先,25岁的模特经纪人王菊在赛季初期几乎被淘汰,似乎不太可能取得成功。但是在六月的几周里,公众对她的喜爱不断高涨,到六月中旬,她已在该节目的22名决赛选手中排名第二。突然之间,王菊,一个曾被各路中国媒体形容为“胖”、“黑”、“丑”的女人取得了这样的成绩,中国评论人士不知该作何解释。

Ms. Wang had long been seen as different from the rest of the women on “Produce 101,” who, with their fair skin, slender bodies and sweet smiles, embodied an aesthetic known as “bai shou mei,” or “white, thin, beautiful” - the gold standard of beauty pursued by young women across China today.

王菊的风格一直迥异于《创造101》中的其他女性,她们皮肤白皙、身材苗条、笑容甜美,体现了一种被称为“白瘦美”的美学-这也是当今中国年轻女性所追求的审美黄金标准。

Anyone outside China might be surprised to learn that Ms. Wang has been viewed as a mold breaker: She is, in fact, rather pretty, and her body hardly seems outside the range of average. But in a sea of bai shou meis, Ms. Wang’s differences - her slightly darker skin, her slightly larger body, and her unwillingness to apologize for them - made her stand out. Ms. Wang embraced her so-called flaws: In one video, she was shown jokingly grabbing her stomach in front of a more slender friend, who later offered her a slice of pizza. And she displayed a self-confidence that drew comparisons to American pop stars like Beyonce: A rap she performed included the English lyrics “You don’t have to put a ring on me, I can buy my own (bling bling).”

王菊被视为打破模式的人,这可能会令任何中国以外的人感到惊讶:实际上,她非常漂亮,她的身材几乎没有超出平均水平。但是在一片“白瘦美”的海洋之中,王菊皮肤略黑,身材微胖,而且并不为此抱憾,这些不同之处令她脱颖而出。王菊接纳自己所谓的缺陷:在一段视频中,她开玩笑地在一个更苗条的朋友面前抱着肚子,后来朋友给了她一小片披萨。她表现出一种自信,把自己和碧昂丝(Beyonce)等美国流行歌星相提并论:她演唱的一首说唱歌里有这样的英文歌词“你不用给我戴戒指,我可以自己买(闪闪发光)。”

When Ms. Wang was unexpectedly catapulted into second place, many in China hailed her overnight popularity as a chance to rethink ideas about Chinese womanhood and femininity. A victory was not to be: Ms. Wang fell to 15th in the June 23 finale, falling short of the final 11, who will go on to become a new band called Rocket Girls. Still, her dramatic rise and fall have unleashed fervent discussions on a range of topics including body image, social mobility and female empowerment.

当王菊出人意料地跃居第二位时,很多中国人都为她的一夜成名而欢呼,认为这是一个重新思考中国女性身份和女性气质的机会。但最终胜利没有降临:在6月23日的总决赛中,王菊跌至第15位,没有入选最终将继续组成新乐队“火箭少女”的11人名单。尽管如此,她戏剧性的大起大落引发了对一系列话题的热烈讨论,包括身材形象、社会流动性和女性赋权。

The fact that bodies are changing in a rapidly developing China has been well documented. The country’s sweeping urbanization and the adoption of richer diets mean that Chinese adults, over all, weigh more than they used to and that obesity is a growing problem. But while real Chinese bodies have gotten heavier, the ideal body type - for women at least - has shifted in the other direction.

在快速发展的中国,人的身材变化已经得到了充分的研究。大规模的城市化进程和更丰富的饮食令中国成年人的体重总体来说比过去有所增加,肥胖问题日益严重。但是,虽然在现实里中国人的体重在增加,理想体型却在向着另一个方向转变,至少对于女性来说是如此。

In the 1980s and 1990s, healthier body images prevailed, exemplified by women like the actress Gong Li and the singer Deng Lijun. These reflected ideas left over from the Cultural Revolution, when the ideal woman was portrayed as ruddy and strong, said Tan Jia, a professor at the University of Hong Kong who specializes in gender and media studies.

1980年代和1990年代流行的是更健康的身形,女演员巩俐和歌手邓丽君等人是这种形象的典型。专门从事性别和媒体研究的香港大学教授谭佳说,这反映了文革期间遗留下来的观念,当时理想的女性被描绘成面色红润、健壮的形象。

In recent decades, however, notions of beauty in Asia have converged around the tall, thin and fair image exported by Korean and Japanese pop culture. Whitening products, popular across East Asia, and the widespread use of “beautification” apps like Meitu, where you can enlarge eyes, slenderize legs and sharpen chins with a few taps, have contributed to narrowing representations of beauty on social media.

然而在近几十年来的亚洲,关于美丽的观念汇聚为日韩流行文化所输出的那种又高又瘦、皮肤白皙的形象。美白产品在东亚大受欢迎,美图秀秀之类的“美颜”应用被广泛使用,只需点几下,你就可以放大眼睛,让双腿变细,把下巴磨尖,这些都在社交媒体上进一步缩小了“美”的范畴。

The increasingly slender, so to speak, range of acceptable bodies comes at a time when Chinese society is putting an increasing premium on women’s looks. The country’s transition to capitalism has been accompanied by setbacks in the area of gender equality. Discrimination against women is rife and often overt in the workplace, and women can be hired as much for their youth and beauty as their skills. Job advertisements often state a preference for men over women, and employers seeking female workers sometimes include height and age requirements.

可以说,在理想身材标准变得越来越瘦的同时,中国社会也越来越重视女性的外貌。中国向资本主义的过渡伴随着性别平等领域内的倒退。对女性的歧视非常盛行,在工作场所往往是公开的,女性可以凭着年轻美貌就得到雇用,就像因为工作技能而得到雇用一样。招聘广告中通常写明更想招男性而非女性,寻找女性员工的雇主有时会写出身高和年龄要求。

It’s not surprising, therefore, that many found something to celebrate in Wang Ju’s unlikely rise to fame. Ms. Wang was especially popular among those who viewed themselves as outsiders. She found a particular base of support, for instance, in China’s L.G.B.T. community. Her personal story, too, resonated with many young people: Unlike most of the other contestants, who had formal training and were backed by talent management companies, Ms. Wang was an independent contestant who had given up her dream of being a performer at 17, in accordance with her family’s wishes for her to train as a teacher, only to return to it at 25, making her one of the oldest contestants on the show.

因此,王菊意料之外的成名令许多人觉得有理由庆祝,也就不足为奇了。她在那些自视为局外人的人群中尤其受欢迎。例如,她在中国的LGBT群体中找到了特定的支持者。她的个人故事也引起许多年轻人的共鸣:与其他大多数经过正式培训并有经纪公司支持的参赛选手不同,王菊是一位独立选手,17岁那年,她放弃了自己的演艺梦想,因为家人希望她去读师范当教师;直到25岁,她才重新找回这个梦想,因此也成了这次选秀中年纪最大的参赛者之一。

For now, however, it seems that mainstream Chinese beauty has won out. Yang Chaoyue, a doe-eyed contestant who gained the third-highest number of votes in the finale, was also viewed as an underdog, in part because of her rural background. But many commentators claimed she won votes in part because she was often seen crying on the show and portrayed herself as sensitive and self-doubting - a foil to the confident, assertive Ms. Wang, but one in keeping with traditional ideas about Chinese femininity.

但是,目前似乎还是中国主流美女获得了胜利。获得第三高票数的选手杨超越有着一双大大的黑眼睛,她也曾经不被看好,部分原因是她出身农村。但许多评论者说,她之所以能够赢得投票,部分原因是她经常在节目里哭泣,并且展现出敏感和自我怀疑的气质-这和坚定自信的王菊形成鲜明对比,但却符合传统观念下的中国女性气质。

Still, there are already rumors that Ms. Wang has signed a solo recording contract and that cosmetics companies are interested in signing her as a spokeswoman. For many of Ms. Wang’s fans, the performer is exactly where she belongs: on an independent path that was never “Produce 101.”

不过,传闻王菊已经签下了一份个人的唱片合同,化妆品公司也有兴趣签她担任代言人。对于王菊的许多粉丝来说,她是天生的表演者:她应当走在一条与《创造101》迥异的独立道路之上。

来源:纽约时报爱语吧作者:Penny

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