Why Do Babies Kick in the Womb?

科普:胎儿为何在妈妈的子宫里踢腿?
时间:2018-07-05 单词数:6580

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导读:做过妈妈的都知道,第一次感受到胎儿踢腿可能会觉得惊奇。那宝宝为何在子宫里踢腿呢?

子宫里踢腿_英语新闻

The first time a pregnant woman feels her baby kick can be surprising — a sudden reminder that the tiny creature growing inside her has a mind of its own. But why do babies kick?

孕妇第一次感受到胎儿踢腿可能会觉得惊奇——这是突然提醒她,在她体内生长的小生命开始有自己的想法了。但为什么胎儿会踢腿呢?

Though the womb is a tight space in which to exercise, it turns out that those kicks are vital for the baby’s healthy bone and joint development, an expert told Live Science.

一名专家对趣味科学网站记者说,尽管子宫作为运动场所显得拥挤了,但这些踢腿动作对胎儿骨骼健康和关节发育至关重要。

Fetuses begin moving in the womb about as early as 7 weeks, when they slowly bend their necks, according to a review paper published in the journal Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. As the babies grow, they gradually add more movements to their repertoire, such as hiccupping, arm and leg movements, stretching, yawning, and thumb sucking. But the mom won’t feel the bigger movements — such as kicks and punches — until 16 to 18 weeks into her pregnancy, when the baby is a bit stronger.

根据发表在《妇产科超声》杂志上的一篇评论文章,胎儿最早在7周时就能在子宫中运动,那时他们会慢慢地弯曲脖子。随着胎儿的生长,他们的动作会逐渐增多,例如打嗝、动胳膊动腿、伸展、打哈欠和吮吸拇指。但孕妇只有到怀孕16周至18周时才能感受到幅度较大的动作,例如踢腿和击打,此时胎儿已经更强壮了。

Babies need their exercise, too.

报道还称,胎儿也需要运动。

An entire field of research is dedicated to figuring out whether the baby is in control of its movement or if those movements are just a reflex, said Niamh Nowlan, a bioengineer at Imperial College London. "Early movements are likely to be purely reflex," Nowlan told Live Science in an email, but as the movements become more coordinated, "it’s likely the brain is in control of how much and when the baby moves." (Reflexes, on the other hand, come from the spinal cord and don’t require input from the brain.)

伦敦帝国理工学院生物工程学家尼娅姆.诺兰说,一个完整的研究正在致力于弄清楚是胎儿能控制这些动作,还是说这些动作只是一种反射。“早期的动作很可能只是纯粹的反射,”诺兰在发给趣味科学网站的一封电子邮件中说,但随着动作变得更加协调,“很可能是大脑在控制胎儿的运动速度和时间。”(另一方面,反射来自脊髓,不需要大脑的输入)

Scientists may not know for sure if the movements are voluntary or involuntary, but Nowlan said the research is clear that movement is important. "The baby needs to move [in the womb] to be healthy after birth, particularly for their bones and joints," she said. In a review she published in the journal European Cells and Materials, Nowlan described how a lack of fetal movement can lead to a variety of congenital disorders, such as shortened joints and thin bones that are susceptible to fracture.

科学家们或许无法确定胎儿是主动还是无意识做出这些动作的,但诺兰说,研究明确了一点:运动很重要。她说:“胎儿需要(在子宫里)运动以保持健康,尤其是对他们的骨骼和关节而言。”诺兰在期刊《欧洲细胞和材料》上发表的一篇评论性文章描述了缺乏胎动是如何导致各种先天疾病的,例如关节短和骨骼细,这些问题容易引发骨折。

For pregnant women wondering if their baby is too kicky, or not kicky enough, Nowlan said there’s no established amount of normal fetal movement during pregnancy. "Pregnant women are told to look out for significant changes in movements, which is quite vague advice, but it’s the best that can be given at the moment," she said.

对于那些担心宝宝胎动太多或是太少的孕妇,诺兰说,在孕期胎儿运动并没有固定的数量。她说:“孕妇被告知要注意胎动的明显变化,这是一个非常模糊的建议,但也是当前能提供的最好的建议。”

That’s because it’s difficult for scientists to study fetal movements, because the only way to measure them is in the hospital and it can be done for only a short period at a time.

这是因为科学家很难研究胎儿的运动,要监测它们的唯一方式就是在医院里,而且只能在短时间内完成。

It’s unlikely that each woman will feel the same thing when her baby starts kicking.

当胎儿开始踢腿时,每个准妈妈的感觉可能不同。

"Different women experience the sensation quite differently, and sensations can vary between pregnancies," Nowlan said. In her own two pregnancies, for example, she said she was much more sensitive to the movements of her second child compared to those of her first. "I could always tell where my son’s feet were, whereas that wasn’t really the case for my first," she said. She hypothesized that this variation could have arisen because the womb muscles are more stretched out after the first pregnancy, a topic she’s now studying.

“不同的女性对这种感觉的感受是完全不同的,而且同一个人每次怀孕期间的感觉也会有所不同,” 诺兰说。例如,在她自己的两次怀孕中,她说与第一次怀孕相比,她对第二个孩子的动作要敏感得多。她说:“我总是能分辨出我儿子的脚在哪里,而我的第一个儿子却不是这样。”她推测,这种变化可能是由于第一次怀孕后子宫的肌肉更加伸展,这也是她目前正在研究的课题。

But babies in the womb are doing more than just kicking. By 15 weeks, the baby is also punching, opening and closing its mouth, moving its head, and sucking its thumb. A few weeks later, the baby will open and close its eyes. But the mother will feel only the major movements: kicking, punching and maybe big hiccups.

但子宫中的胎儿不仅会踢腿。到15周时,胎儿还会用拳头击打、开合嘴巴、摇头和吮吸拇指。再过几周,胎儿将会开合眼睛。但孕妇只会感受到主要动作:踢腿、击打,或许还有动静比较大的打嗝。

The babies also do "breathing movements,’" said Nowlan. While the baby isn’t actually breathing air, it will perform the same movement, just with amniotic fluid. Nowlan explained that babies who don’t perform this movement often have trouble breathing once they’re born, because they haven’t built up their chest muscles.

诺兰说,胎儿也会进行“呼吸运动”。尽管胎儿并没有真正吸入空气,但也会做同样的运动,只不过吸入和呼出的是羊水而已。诺兰解释说,不做这种运动的胎儿通常会在出生后出现呼吸问题,因为他们没有增强胸肌。

Feeling a baby moving and kicking in the womb might be a weird sensation, but it’s simply a sign of healthy development.

感受胎儿在子宫中动动和踢腿或许是种怪怪的体验,但其实它不过是健康发育的迹象。

来源:美国趣味科学爱语吧作者:悠悠

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