Is that a passport to riches driving you crazy?

通往富国的护照真的让你倾倒痴狂吗?
时间:2018-07-06 单词数:5660

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导读:发达国家担心移民,他们通常考虑的是对收入要求较低的移民会和他们竞争就业岗位,例如建筑工人,洗碗工或是农场工人。而发展中国家担心移民,则通常考虑的是,他们最优秀的人才流入了硅谷,或是发达国家的一些医院和大学。

通往富国的护照_ 双语新闻

WHEN people in rich countries worry about migration, they tend to think of low-paid incomers who compete for jobs as construction workers, dishwashers or farmhands. When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest decamping to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world. These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain, Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates.

发达国家担心移民,他们通常考虑的是对收入要求较低的移民会和他们竞争就业岗位,例如建筑工人,洗碗工或是农场工人。而发展中国家担心移民,则通常考虑的是,他们最优秀的人才流入了硅谷,或是发达国家的一些医院和大学。而这些人才正是英国、加拿大、澳大利亚这样的国家需要的,他们通过优待大学生的移民政策来吸引这样的人才。

Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate. By some estimates, two-thirds of highly educated Cape Verdeans live outside the country. A big survey of Indian households carried out in 2004 asked about family members who had moved abroad. It found that nearly 40% of emigrants had more than a high-school education, compared with around 3.3% of all Indians over the age of 25. This “brain drain” has long bothered policymakers in poor countries. They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make.

很多研究发现,发展中国家受过良好教育的人们尤其可能移民。据估计,三分之二受过良好教育的Cape Verdeans都居住在国外。2004年对印度家庭展开了一次大范围调查,询问了他们移居国外的家庭成员情况。调查发现,近40%的移民接受过高等教育,而所有25岁以上的印度人中,这一比例仅为3.3%。这种“人才外流”的现象长期困扰着穷国的政策制定者们。他们担心这会有损经济发展,使得他们丧失亟需的有技能的人才,他们本可在大学里教书,在医院里工作,或是研发出可供生产的新产品。

Many now take issue with this view. Several economists reckon that the brain-drain hypothesis fails to account for the effects of remittances, for the beneficial effects of returning migrants, and for the possibility that being able to migrate to greener pastures induces people to get more education. Some argue that once these factors are taken into account, an exodus of highly skilled people could turn out to be a net benefit to the countries they leave. Recent studies of migration from countries as far apart as Ghana, Fiji, India and Romania have found support for this “brain gain” idea.

现在很多人不再认同这个观点。有些经济学家认为,人才外流有一些被忽视的好处,例如汇款,归国移民所带来的价值,或是移民他国的想法促使了人们接受更多的教育。有些人声称,一旦这些因素考虑进去,高技能人才的流出对他们的国家来说可能变成好事。近来对加纳,斐济,印度和罗马尼亚这四个相距甚远的国家的研究,发现了支持这种“人才外流有益”观点的证据。

There are more subtle ways in which the departure of some skilled people may aid poorer countries. Some emigrants would have been jobless had they stayed. Studies have found that unemployment rates among young people with college degrees in countries like Morocco and Tunisia are several multiples of those among the poorly educated, perhaps because graduates are more demanding. Migration may lead to a more productive pairing of people’s skills and jobs. Some of the benefits of this improved match then flow back to the migrant’s home country, most directly via remittances.

技术移民还可以通过一些微妙的方式来帮助他们贫穷的祖国。如果他们留在祖国的话,弄不好会失业。研究发现,在摩洛哥和突尼斯这样的国家,拥有大学学历的年轻人,他们的失业率是那些低学历者的好几倍,也许是因为大学毕业生对工作的要求更高。移民他国可以使得有技能的人找到更适合他们的工作,而他们的祖国就享受到了这所带来的部分好处,最直接的方式就是通过汇款。

The possibility of emigration may even have beneficial effects on those who choose to stay, by giving people in poor countries an incentive to invest in education. A study of Cape Verdeans finds that an increase of ten percentage points in young people’s perceived probability of emigrating raises the probability of their completing secondary school by around eight points. Another study looks at Fiji. A series of coups beginning in 1987 was seen by Fijians of Indian origin as permanently harming their prospects in the country by limiting their share of government jobs and political power. This set off a wave of emigration. Yet young Indians in Fiji became more likely to go to university even as the outlook at home dimmed, in part because Australia, Canada and New Zealand, three of the top destinations for Fijians, put more emphasis on attracting skilled migrants. Since some of those who got more education ended up staying, the skill levels of the resident Fijian population soared.

移民他国的可能性还会对那些选择留下的人起到积极影响,因为这会鼓励穷国的人们增加教育投入。Cape Verdeans的一项研究显示,年轻人移民的可能性每上升十个百分点,他们完成中学教育的可能性就上升了约八个百分点。另一项研究是关于斐济的。印度裔斐济人认为1987年开始的一系列政变,会通过限制他们对政府工作的参与度和政治权力,从而永远损害他们在斐济的前途。这掀起了移民潮。然而,尽管祖国的前景黯淡,留在斐济的年轻印度人更有可能上大学,一部分由于三大斐济人最热衷的移民国——澳大利亚,加拿大和新西兰,更加重视吸引有技能的移民。由于有些受过更多教育的人最终留在了斐济,斐济居民的技能水平大幅提升。

来源:华尔街日报爱语吧作者:CNS喻贵良

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