Trump Administration Reverses Obama on Affirmative Action

特朗普政府将鼓励大学招生忽略种族因素
时间:2018-07-08 单词数:4570

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导读:特朗普政府官员表示,政府将鼓励全国学校管理者和大学校长采用无视种族的招生标准,放弃奥巴马政府要求大学将种族视为校园多元化的一个因素。

特朗普政府将鼓励大学招生忽略种族因素_最新英语新闻

WASHINGTON - The Trump administration will encourage the nation’s school superintendents and college presidents to adopt race-blind admissions standards, abandoning an Obama administration policy that called on universities to consider race as a factor in diversifying their campuses, Trump administration officials said.

华盛顿--特朗普政府官员表示,政府将鼓励全国学校管理者和大学校长采用无视种族的招生标准,放弃奥巴马政府要求大学将种族视为校园多元化的一个因素。

Last November, Attorney General Jeff Sessions asked the Justice Department to re-evaluate past policies that he believed pushed the department to act beyond what the law, the Constitution and the Supreme Court had required, Devin M. O’Malley, a Justice Department spokesman said. As part of that process, the Justice Department rescinded seven policy guidances from the Education Department’s civil rights division Tuesday.

司法部发言人德文.M.奥马利(Devin M. O’Malley)说,去年11月,司法部长杰夫.塞申斯(Jeff Sessions) 认为过去的一些政策促使司法部做出了超出法律、宪法和最高法院要求的行动,他要求司法部对这些政策进行重新评估。作为该评估过程的一部分,司法部于周二取消了教育部民权办公室颁发的七项政策指导。

“The executive branch cannot circumvent Congress or the courts by creating guidance that goes beyond the law and - in some instances - stays on the books for decades,” O’Malley said.

“行政部门不能通过制定超越法律的指导方案来规避国会或法院,在某些情况下,这些指导方案会被记录在案长达数十年之久,”奥马利说。

The Supreme Court has steadily narrowed the ways that schools can consider race when trying to diversify their student bodies. But it has not banned the practice.

最高法院已逐步减少了学校在试图令学生群体多样化时就种族因素所采取的措施。但它并没有禁止这种做法。

Now, affirmative action is at a crossroads. The Trump administration is moving against any use of race as a measurement of diversity in education. And the retirement of Justice Anthony Kennedy at the end of this month will leave the court without its swing vote on affirmative action and allow President Donald Trump to nominate a justice opposed to a policy that for decades has tried to integrate elite educational institutions.

现在,平权行动正处于十字路口。特朗普政府正在继续反对一切以种族衡量教育多样性的措施。安东尼.肯尼迪(Anthony Kennedy)大法官将于本月底退休,离开最高法庭,这令最高法院关于平权行动的投票失去了摇摆票,唐纳德.特朗普总统亦可提名一位新法官,反对一项几十年来试图整合精英教育机构的政策。

A highly anticipated case is pitting Harvard against Asian-American students who say one of the nation’s most prestigious institutions has systematically excluded some Asian-American applicants to maintain slots for students of other races. That case is clearly aimed at the Supreme Court.

哈佛大学对亚裔学生案是一个备受瞩目的案例,学生们称,这个国家最负盛名的学府之一有计划有步骤地排除了一些亚裔申请者,以便为其他种族的学生保留名额。该案件显然希望上诉到最高法院。

“The whole issue of using race in education is being looked at with a new eye in light of the fact that it’s not just white students being discriminated against, but Asians and others as well,” said Roger Clegg, president and general counsel of the conservative Center for Equal Opportunity. “As the demographics of the country change, it becomes more and more problematic.”

“不仅白人学生受到歧视,而且亚裔和其他群体也受到歧视,因此在教育中考虑种族这件事正在从整体上被重新审视,”保守组织平等机会中心(Center for Equal Opportunity)主席兼法律总顾问罗杰.克莱格(Roger Clegg)说。“随着国家人口结构的变化,问题越来越多。”

The Obama administration believed that students benefit from being surrounded by diverse classmates, so in 2011 the administration offered schools a potential road map to establishing affirmative action policies that could withstand legal scrutiny. The guidance was controversial at the time that it was issued for its far-reaching interpretation of the law. Justice officials said that pages of hypothetical scenarios offered in the guidance were particularly problematic as they clearly bent the law to specific policy preferences.

奥巴马政府认为,置身多样化的同学之中会令学生受益,因此在2011年,该政府为学校提供了一份经得住法律审查、建设平权行动政策的潜在方案。这份指导方案在发布时颇有争议,有人认为它在阐释法律方面走得太远。司法官员表示,指导方案中关于情景假设的几页特别成问题,因为它们显然是在根据具体的政策偏好歪曲法律。

In a pair of policy guidance documents, the Obama Education and Justice departments told elementary and secondary schools and college campuses to use “the compelling interests” established by the court to achieve diversity. They concluded that the Supreme Court “has made clear such steps can include taking account of the race of individual students in a narrowly tailored manner.”

在两份政策指导文件中,奥巴马时期的教育部和司法部要中小学以及大学基于最高法院确立的“令人信服的利益”来实现多样性。它们总结道,最高法院“明确表示,这些措施可以包括以严密关联的方式考虑学生个体的种族”。

The Trump administration’s decisions Tuesday brought government policy back to the George W. Bush administration guidances. The Trump administration did not formally reissue Bush-era guidance on race-based admissions, but, in recent days, officials did repost a Bush administration affirmative action policy document online.

特朗普政府周二的决定将让政府政策回归到乔治.W.布什(George W. Bush)政府的指导方案。特朗普政府没有正式重新发布布什时代关于种族问题的入学指导方案,但是,最近几天,政府官员确实在网上重新发布了布什政府的平权行动政策文件。

That document states, “The Department of Education strongly encourages the use of race-neutral methods for assigning students to elementary and secondary schools.”

该文件指出,“教育部强烈鼓励使用种族中立的方法将学生分配到中小学。”

来源:纽约时报爱语吧作者:Penny

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