How your age affects your appetite?

你的年龄如何影响你的食欲?
时间:2018-07-09 单词数:8010

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导读:人生漫长,饮食是我们每天都逃不开的话题。但是随着年龄的增长,我们的食欲也会随之发生变化。

年龄和食欲_英语新闻

Do you eat to live or live to eat? We have a complicated relationship with food. But something we all share is appetite – our desire to eat.Our appetite is also not fixed, it changes across our lifespan as we age.

我们吃东西是为了求生?还是生活的意义在于享用美食?我们和事物的关系错综复杂。但是我们都共享食欲。我们的食欲也不是一成不变的,随着年龄的增长,我们的食欲也随之发生变化。

The first decade, 0-10

第一阶段:0-10

In early childhood, the body goes through rapid growth and dietary behaviour built up in early life can extend into adulthood, leading a fat child to become a fat adult.

童年早期,身体经历了快速的成长,早期养成的饮食习惯可以延续到成年,让一个肥胖的孩子成长为肥胖的成年人。

Fussiness or fear of particular foods can also contribute to meal time struggles for parents of young children, but a strategy of repeated tasting and learning in a positive environment can help children learn about unfamiliar but important foods, such as vegetables.Children should also experience some control, particularly in relation to portion size.

对于特定食物的挑剔或恐惧,还可以归功于孩子父母饭点时分的挣扎。但是,在积极的环境里采用反复品尝和学习的策略,可以帮助孩子习得一些不熟悉但是重要的食物,比如蔬菜。孩子还应该经历一些控制,尤其在食物份量上。

The second decade, 10-20

第二阶段:10-20

In the teenage years, a growth in appetite and stature driven by hormones, signals the arrival of puberty. How a teenager approaches food during this critical period will shape their lifestyle choices in later years.

青少年时期,受荷尔蒙的驱动,食欲和身高增长,这标志着青春期的到来。青少年如何在这一关键时期享用食物,将形成他未来的生活方式选择。

Unfortunately, without guidance, teenagers may adopt eating behaviours and food preferences associated with unhealthy consequences.

不幸地是,在没有指导的情况下,青少年可能会接受带来不健康后果的饮食行为和食物偏好。

Young women in general are more likely to suffer from nutritional deficiencies than young men because of their reproductive biology. Teenage girls who become pregnant are also at greater risk since their bodies are supporting their own growth in competition with that of the growing foetus.

基于繁殖生物学,通常情况下,年轻女性比年轻男性更容易饱受营养不良的折磨。怀孕的青春期少女也面临着更大的风险,因为她们的身体在支撑自我成长和婴儿成长间竞争。

The third decade, 20-30

第三阶段:20-30

As young adults, lifestyle changes such as going to college, getting married or living with a partner, and parenthood can promote weight gain.

作为年轻人,诸如上大学,结婚或者合住都会改变生活方式,当父母会增重。

Once accumulated, body fat is often difficult to lose. The body sends strong appetite signals to eat when we consume less than our energy needs, but the signals to prevent overeating are weaker, which can lead to a circle of over-consumption. There are many physiological and psychological factors that make eating less difficult to maintain over time. In an area of new research is to develop satiety, the sense of having eaten enough. This is helpful when trying to lose weight, since feeling hungry is one of the main barriers to eating less than your body says you need.

体内的脂肪一旦堆积,就很难消失。当我们吃的比能量需求少时,身体就会发出强烈的食欲信号,但是防止过量饮食的信号却比较弱,这会导致过量饮食。很多生理和心理因素让保持少量饮食变得困难。一个新的研究领域就是发展饱腹感。再减肥的时候,这个策略很有用,因为感到饥饿是减少饮食的主要障碍之一。

Different foods send different signals to the brain. It’s easy to eat a tub of ice cream, for example, because fat doesn’t trigger signals in the brain for us to stop eating. On the other hand, foods high in protein, water or fibre content make us feel fuller for longer.

不同的食物向大脑发送不同的信号。比方说,吃下一桶冰淇淋很简单,因为脂肪不会激发大脑停止吃东西的信号。另一方面,富含蛋白质,水或者纤维的食物能让我们获得更久的饱腹感。

The fourth decade, 30-40

第四阶段:30-40

Adult working life brings other challenges beyond a rumbling stomach, but also the effects of stress, which has been shown to prompt changes in appetite and eating habits in 80% of the population.

成年人的工作生活和压力影响会为咕咕作响的胃带来其它挑战,研究表明,80%的人群受此影响造成食欲和饮食习惯变化。

The fifth decade, 40-50

第五阶段: 40-50

The word diet comes from the Greek word diaita meaning “way of life, mode of living”, but we are creatures of habit, often unwilling to change our preferences even when we know it is good for us. We want to eat what we want without changing our lifestyle, and still have a healthy body and mind.There is much evidence to show that diet is a major contributing factor to ill-health. The World Health Organisation highlights smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and problem drinking as the main lifestyle impacts on health and mortality.

饮食这个单词来自希腊语diaita,意味“生活方式或模式”。但是,我们是习惯性生物,通常不愿意改变自己的偏好,即便当我们知道这对自己有利时。我们想在不改变自己生活方式的情况下食用自己想吃的东西,同时拥有健康的身心。很多证据表明,饮食是不健康的主要诱因。世界卫生组织强调,吸烟、不健康饮食、不锻炼和问题饮酒是影响健康和死亡的主要生活方式。

The sixth decade, 50-60

第六阶段: 50-60

After the age of 50, we begin to suffer a gradual loss of muscle mass, at between 0.5-1% per year. This is called sarcopenia, and lessened physical activity, consuming too little protein, and menopause in women will accelerate the decline in muscle mass.

50岁之后,我们开始经历肌肉逐渐萎缩,每年大约萎缩0.5-1%。这被称作肌少症。女性物理锻炼减少,蛋白质摄入过少和绝经会加快肌肉萎缩。

A healthy, varied diet and physical activity are important to reduce the effects of ageing.

健康、多元的饮食和身体锻炼,对减少老龄化影响很重要。

The seventh decade, 60-70, and beyond

第七阶段:60-70,及70岁以上

A major challenge today in the face of increasing life expectancy is to maintain quality of life, or else we will become a society of very old and infirm or disabled people.

当今,寿命延长面临的一个主要挑战就是保持生活质量,否则,我们的社会将成为一个年老体弱或者充斥着残疾人的社会。

Adequate nutrition is important, as old age brings poor appetite and lack of hunger, which leads to unintentional weight loss and greater frailty. Reduced appetite can also result from illness, for example the effects of Alzheimer’s disease.

充分的营养很重要,因为年老会造成食欲不振,饥饿感缺乏,这将造成无意识的减重和虚弱。食欲锐减还会造成疾病,比如老年痴呆症症状。

Food is a social experience, but the loss of a partner or family and eating alone affect the sense of pleasure taken from eating. Other affects of old age, such as swallowing problems, dental issues, reduced taste and smell also interfere with the desire to eat.

食物是一种社会体验,但是失去家庭或者伴侣、独自饮食会影响吃饭的乐趣。年老的一些其他影响,比如吞咽问题,牙齿问题,味觉和嗅觉降低也会影响食欲。

We should remember that throughout life our food is not just fuel, but a social and cultural experience to be enjoyed. We are all experts in food – we eat it every day.

我们应该记住,在我们的一生中,食物不仅仅是种燃料,还是一种值得享受的社会和文化体验。我们都是食物专家——我们每天都享用食物。

So we should strive to treat every opportunity to eat as an opportunity to enjoy our food and to enjoy the positive effects eating the right foods can have on our health.

因为,我们应该努力将每个享用食物的机会,当作享受的机会,享受食用正确食物对我们健康带来的积极影响。

来源:BBC爱语吧作者:Lydia

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