Why losing the will to live can be deadly within three weeks

可怕!失去生存意愿者,三周内就可能死亡
时间:2018-10-04 单词数:4260

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导读:有一种“心因性死亡”你知道吗?

心因性死亡_英语新闻

Losing the will to live is deadly, scientists believe, after finding people can die within three weeks simply because they have given up on life.

科学家认为,失去生存意愿是会致命的。他们发现,那些放弃生存意愿的人在三周内就可能死亡。

A new review by Dr John Leach at the University of Portsmouth, is the first to widely study the condition known as ‘psychogenic death’ and define its five stages.

英国朴茨茅斯大学的约翰·利奇博士进行了一项新的研究,首次对这种被称为“心因性死亡”的状况进行了广泛研究,并确定了它的五个阶段。

Sometimes termed ‘give-up-itis’ it usually follows an emotional shock from which a person thinks there is no mental escape, which makes them dangerously apathetic about their own existence.

这种状况有时被称为“放弃症”,通常在一个人受到情感冲击却得不到心理解脱后出现,这会使人对自己的存在产生危险的漠视感。

If not stopped, death usually occurs three weeks after the first stage of withdrawal, but can happen even sooner. However the syndrome is not widely accepted by scientists.

如果这种状况持续下去,死亡通常会在第一阶段“退缩”出现三周之后来临,但也可能更快。然而这种症状并未得到科学家的广泛认可。

“Psychogenic death is real,” said Dr Leach. “It isn’t suicide, it isn’t linked to depression, but the act of giving up on life and dying usually within days, is a very real condition often linked to severe trauma.”

利奇说:“心因性死亡真的会发生。这不是自杀,也与抑郁无关,但放弃生命并在几天内死去的行为往往与严重创伤有关。”

Psychogenic death, also known as voodoo death, was first defined in 1942 by Harvard psychologist Walter Cannon, who noticed that it could often be triggered by the fear of supernatural consequences to broken taboos. Tribes people who believed they were cursed would often be found dead within a matter of days.

1942年,美国哈佛大学心理学家沃尔特·坎农首次定义了“心因性死亡”(又被称为“伏都死亡”)。他注意到,这常常可能是由对打破禁忌的超自然后果的恐惧引发的。认为自己受到诅咒的部落人往往会在几天内被人发现已经死亡。

Cannon also termed the ‘fight or flight’ response and believed in psychogenic death that the flight response took over but the sufferer could not act on it, leading to a fatal chain of events.

坎农还将这种情况称为“战斗或逃跑反应”,他认为这种心因性死亡是由逃跑反应控制的,但患者无法采取行动,导致一系列致命事件的发生。

By reviewing case reports from concentration camp inmates, shipwreck survivors, and even Jamestown colonists, Dr Leach, found that the first stage is social withdrawal in which sufferers exhibit lack of emotion, listlessness and indifference and become self-absorbed.

通过对集中营里的囚犯、海难幸存者,甚至詹姆斯敦殖民者的案例报告进行分析,利奇发现,第一阶段是“社交退缩”——患者的表现是:缺乏感情、无精打采和漠不关心,以及变得专注于自我。

Next a deep apathy sets in where a person no longer cares about self-preservation and instead sinks into a deep demoralising melancholy.

接下来,一种深深的冷漠开始出现。患者不再关心自我保护,而是陷入了深深的沮丧和忧郁。

The third phase is ‘aboulia’ in which people stop speaking and give up eating and washing which leads to stage four, psychic akinesia, where they no longer even feel extreme pain.

第三阶段是“意志缺失”。在这个阶段,人不再说话,不再吃饭和洗漱。这进而导致第四阶段“精神性运动不能”,他们甚至感受不到极度的疼痛。

In one case study used in the review a young woman suffered second-degree burns while visiting the beach, because she hadn’t removed herself from the sun’s heat.

在研究报告所使用的一个案例中,一名年轻女性在海滩上被二度烧伤,因为她处在太阳的高温下却浑然不觉。

The final stage is death. In concentration camps, people who reached this stage were often known to be near death by fellow prisoners when they started smoking their valuable hidden cigarettes.

最后一个阶段是死亡。在集中营里,其他囚犯在看到处于这一阶段的某人开始抽珍藏的香烟时就会知道,此人已濒临死亡。

Dr Leach said: “When a prisoner took out a cigarette and lit it, their campmates knew the person had truly given up, had lost faith in their ability to carry on and would soon be dead.”

利奇博士说:“当一名囚犯拿出一支香烟并点燃它时,他的同伴们就知道这个人真的放弃了,对自己的能力失去了信心,很快就会死去。”

来源:每日电讯报爱语吧作者:悠悠

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