Protein research takes Chemistry Nobel

2018诺贝尔化学奖揭晓:三位科学家因酶定向进化获奖
时间:2018-10-05 单词数:2110

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导读:诺贝尔化学奖刚刚揭晓! 2018年诺贝尔化学奖授予了三位科学家,他们的成就是肽类和抗体的噬菌体展示技术。

2018诺贝尔化学奖_英语新闻

The 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to three scientists for their discoveries in enzyme research.

2018年诺贝尔化学奖被授予三位科学家,表彰他们在“酶的定向进化”方面的研究。

Americans Frances Arnold and George P Smith will share the prize with Briton Gregory Winter, who is based at Cambridge University.

来自美国的Frances Arnold和George P Smith将与来自剑桥大学的英国研究者Gregory Winter分享这个奖项。

This year’s winners used a technique called directed evolution to create new proteins.

今年的获奖者使用了一种被称为“定向进化”的技术来创造新的蛋白质。

These have been used in areas as diverse as the manufacture of new drugs and green fuels.

它们已被用于各种领域,如新药物和绿色燃料的制造。

Frances Arnold, from Caltech in Pasadena, was first to use a method mimicking natural selection in order to develop enzymes that would perform specific tasks.

来自帕萨迪纳加州理工学院的Frances Arnold首先使用一种模仿自然选择的方法来开发能够执行特定任务的酶。

Enzymes are biological catalysts - which speed up chemical reactions in biological cells.

酶是生物催化剂,能够加速生物细胞中的化学反应。

Prof Arnold’s directed evolution techniques are now routinely used to develop new enzymes.

Arnold教授的定向进化技术现在常用于开发新的酶。

George P Smith and Sir Gregory Winter developed a technique called phage display to evolve new proteins.

George P Smith和Sir Gregory Winter开发了一种称为“噬菌体展示”的技术来进化新的蛋白质。

They used bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, to generate new antibodies - large proteins that are used by the immune system to neutralise harmful bacteria and viruses.

他们使用噬菌体和感染细菌的病毒共同作用产生新的抗体,这种抗体是一种大蛋白,用来中和免疫系统用来的有害细菌和病毒。

The first antibody based on this method, adalimumab, was approved in 2002 and is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases.

基于该方法的第一抗体“阿达木单抗”于2002年被批准用于治疗类风湿性关节炎,牛皮癣和炎性肠道疾病。

Since then, phage display has produced antibodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and treat metastatic cancer.

从那时起,“噬菌体展示”技术制造了可以中和毒素、抵抗自身免疫疾病和治疗转移性癌症的抗体。

来源:BBC新闻爱语吧作者:sylvie

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