US considered ban on student visas for Chinese nationals

美国曾考虑对中国公民禁发赴美留学签证
时间:2018-10-05 单词数:9450

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导读:今年早些时候,白宫顾问米勒曾鼓动特朗普停止向中国公民发放留学签证。因部分官员担心这样做的经济和外交影响,该提议遭搁置。

美国曾考虑对中国公民禁发赴美留学签证_英语新闻

White House hawks earlier this year encouraged President Donald Trump to stop providing student visas to Chinese nationals, but the proposal was shelved over concerns about its economic and diplomatic impact.

今年早些时候,白宫鹰派曾鼓动美国总统唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)停止向中国公民发放留学签证,不过,由于一些人对这样做的经济和外交影响感到担忧,该提议遭到搁置。

As the administration debated ways to tackle Chinese espionage, Stephen Miller, a White House aide who has been pivotal in developing the administration’s hardline immigration policies, pushed the president and other officials to make it impossible for Chinese citizens to study in the US, according to three people familiar with internal discussions.

三名知情人士透露,在特朗普政府讨论应对中国间谍活动的办法时,白宫顾问斯蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)曾敦促总统和其他官员让中国公民无法到美国留学。米勒在特朗普政府制定强硬移民政策的过程中一直扮演关键角色。

The debate about Chinese students intensified after the White House in December released its national security strategy, which said it would “review visa procedures to reduce economic theft by non-traditional intelligence collectors” and consider restrictions on foreign students in science-related fields.

去年12月,白宫发布了国家安全战略,称将“检讨签证程序,以减少非传统情报收集者的经济盗窃”,并考虑限制科学相关领域的外国学生。在那之后,围绕中国留学生的辩论变得更加激烈了。

While the debate was largely focused on spying, Mr Miller argued his plan would also hurt elite universities whose staff and students have been highly critical of Mr Trump, according to the three people with knowledge of the debate.

上述三名知情人士表示,虽然辩论主要集中在间谍活动方面,但米勒论称,他的这项计划也会给那些教员和学生曾抨击特朗普的精英大学造成损伤。

The issue came to a head in an Oval Office meeting in the spring during which Mr Miller squared off with administration opponents, including Terry Branstad, the former Iowa governor who is US ambassador to China.

他的想法引发激烈辩论后,这个议题在今年春天白宫椭圆形办公室的一次会议上引发了一次“摊牌”,站在米勒对立面的包括前艾奥瓦州州长、现任美国驻华大使特里·布兰斯塔德(Terry Branstad)。

According to the three people familiar with the discussions, ahead of the Oval Office meeting Mr Branstad argued that Mr Miller’s plan would take a much bigger toll on smaller colleges, including in Iowa, than on wealthy Ivy League universities.

这三名知情人士透露,在那次椭圆形办公室会议召开前,布兰斯塔德曾论称,相对于富有的常春藤(Ivy League)大学,米勒的计划将给规模较小的院校,包括艾奥瓦州的,造成大得多的冲击。

US embassy officials in Beijing also made a broader economic argument that most American states enjoy service-sector trade surpluses with China, in part because of spending by Chinese students.

美国驻北京大使馆官员还提出了一个更广泛的经济论据,即美国大多数州对华享有服务贸易顺差,部分原因就在于中国留学生的支出。

Mr Branstad succeeded in convincing the president that Mr Miller’s proposal was too draconian, according to one person familiar with the White House showdown. At one point, Mr Trump looked at his ambassador and quipped: “Not everyone can go to Harvard or Princeton, right Terry?”

一名了解白宫那次摊牌情况的人士透露,布兰斯塔德成功说服总统相信米勒的提议过于严厉。特朗普一度看着自己的大使打趣道:“不是每个人都能上哈佛(Harvard)或普林斯顿(Princeton),对吧,特里?”

A spokesperson for Mr Branstad declined to comment.

布兰斯塔德的发言人拒绝置评。白宫也拒绝置评。

While Mr Trump opted not to take the more radical approach, some officials, including Peter Navarro, the White House trade adviser and a China hawk, continue to push for a harder stance.

虽然特朗普没有选择采取这种更激进的做法,但包括白宫贸易顾问、对华鹰派彼得·纳瓦罗(Peter Navarro)在内的一些官员,仍在推动采取更强硬的立场。

One person familiar with the debate said Mr Miller’s opponents were worried the president might return to the issue, particularly as he takes an increasingly tough line on China over everything from trade to cyber security.

一名知情人士表示,米勒的反对者担心总统可能重提这一议题,尤其是在他在从贸易到网络安全的所有问题上对华采取越来越强硬立场之际。

“Turning away foreign students would do enormous damage to the US economy,” said Edward Alden, an immigration expert at the Council on Foreign Relations think-tank. “The US has long attracted the lion’s share of the world’s most talented immigrants because they come here initially to attend the world’s best universities. If we shut off that pipeline, the US will become poorer and weaker.”

“拒绝外国留学生将对美国经济造成巨大损害,”智库美国对外关系委员会(Council on foreign Relations)移民问题专家爱德华·奥尔登(Edward Alden)说,“美国长期以来一直吸引着世界上最大一部分最有才华的移民,因为他们来这里本就是为了就读世界最好的大学。如果我们关闭这条通道,美国将变得更穷、更弱。”

China was the biggest source of international students for the US in the 2016-17 academic year, according to the Institute of International Education. More than 350,000 Chinese nationals were enrolled at American colleges and universities over that period, compared with 186,000 from India, according to IIE data.

国际教育协会(IIE)数据显示,2016-17学年,中国是美国最大的留学生来源国,有逾35万中国公民到美国高校就读,而来自印度的留学生为18.6万人。

The state department, whose deputy John Sullivan also attended the Oval Office meeting, declined to comment on the debate over Mr Miller’s proposal. A spokesperson said it “uses a variety of tools to enact the president’s 2017 national security strategy”, without providing details about the changes in policy.

美国国务院副国务卿约翰·沙利文(John Sullivan)也出席了上述椭圆形办公室会议。国务院拒绝就米勒的提议置评。一名发言人表示,国务院“使用了多种方式实施总统的2017年国家安全战略”,但没有提供政策变化的细节。

While many officials pushed back against Mr Miller, there is broad concern across the US government about the rising espionage threat from China, including from Chinese students and researchers at US universities.

虽然许多官员反对米勒,但美国政府内部普遍担心来自中国的——包括来自美国大学中国籍留学生和研究人员的——不断上升的间谍威胁。

In February, Christopher Wray, director of the FBI, said his agency was increasingly worried about China’s use of “non-traditional” intelligence collectors, including students, professors and scientists.

今年2月,美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长克里斯托弗·雷(Christopher Wray)表示,该局越来越担心中国使用“非传统”情报收集者,包括留学生、教授和科学家。

“It’s not just in major cities. It’s in small ones as well. It’s across?.?.?.?every discipline,” Mr Wray told the Senate intelligence committee, adding US academics had a “level of na?veté” about the problem.

“不只是在大城市。在小城市也有。各个……学科的,”雷对美国参议院情报委员会表示。他补充称,美国学术界对这一问题有“一定程度的天真”。

Michael Green, a Georgetown University professor who was the top White House Asia adviser in the Bush administration, said that while Chinese espionage was a growing concern, it was important not to overreact.

乔治城大学(Georgetown University)教授、曾在小布什(Bush)政府担任白宫亚洲事务高级顾问的迈克尔·格林(Michael Green)表示,虽然中国的间谍活动日益令人担忧,但最好不要反应过度。

There is a problem, but this is a case where you don’t want to throw the baby out with the bathwater. The overwhelming majority of Chinese students studying in the US become bridges, not threats,” said Prof Green, who agreed with Beijing embassy officials that colleges in states that Mr Trump won in 2016 would suffer the most from an absence of Chinese students, rather than elite universities.

格林教授表示:“的确存在问题,但在这件事上你不想把孩子和洗澡水一起倒掉。在美国学习的绝大多数中国留学生成为了桥梁,而非威胁。”他补充说,米勒提议的讽刺之处在于,特朗普2016年赢得的那些州的大学将受到冲击,而非精英大学。

A senior official last week said the US was pushing back because activities by the United Front Work Department— the Chinese Communist party branch that oversees influence operations across the world — that had “reached an unacceptable level”. He said the department was trying to intimidate everyone from China experts at US colleges and think-tanks to some Chinese students in the US.

一位美国高级官员上周表示,华盛顿方面正在反击中国,因为中共统战部的种种活动已“达到不可接受的程度”。统战部是中共一个负责在全球扩大影响力的部门。他表示,该部门正试图胁迫所有人——从美国大学和智库的中国专家到一些在美中国留学生。

Asked about Mr Miller’s proposal, a Chinese official said it was “ridiculous” and would be “very short-sighted”, pointing out that Chinese students had contributed $18bn to local economies in 2017 alone.

当被问及米勒的提议时,一名中国官员称这是“荒谬”和“非常短视”的,并指出仅在2017年一年,中国留学生就为当地经济贡献了180亿美元。

“To politicise the normal exchange of students and shut the door for exchanges and co-operation goes against the trend of globalisation,” the official said. “It stands little chance of hurting China without hurting the US.”

“将正常的学生交流政治化,关闭交流与合作的大门,违背全球化趋势,”这位官员说,“此举基本不可能只伤害中国而不伤害美国。”

来源:金融时报爱语吧作者:杨鹏

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