Is sugar really bad for you?

糖真的有害健康么?
时间:2018-10-30 单词数:5990

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导读:虽然现在难以想象,但曾几何时,人类只能在水果成熟的几个月里吃到糖。大约8万年前,从事狩猎和采集活动的人类只能偶尔吃到少量水果,还要跟鸟抢着吃。但是吃太多的糖到底对我们有没有害呢?

糖真的有害健康么?_最新英语新闻

It’s hard to imagine now, but there was a time when humans only had access to sugar for a few months a year when fruit was in season. Some 80,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers ate fruit sporadically and infrequently, since they were competing with birds.

虽然现在难以想象,但曾几何时,人类只能在水果成熟的几个月里吃到糖。大约8万年前,从事狩猎和采集活动的人类只能偶尔吃到少量水果,还要跟鸟抢着吃。

Now, our sugar hits come all year round, often with less nutritional value and far more easily – by simply opening a soft drink or cereal box. It doesn’t take an expert to see that our modern sugar intake is less healthy than it was in our foraging days. Today, sugar has become public health enemy number one: governments are taxing it, schools and hospitals are removing it from vending machines and experts are advising that we remove it completely from our diets.

现在,我们全年都能吃到大量的糖,糖的营养意义降低,吃到糖的难度也大大下降,开瓶汽水或者开盒麦片即可。不是专家也知道,现代人糖的摄入量不及以前四处找糖的时期健康。如今,糖已经成了公共健康的头号敌人:政府对糖征税,学校和医院不在自动售货机里卖糖,专家建议在饮食中完全不摄入糖。

But so far, scientists have had a difficult time proving how it affects our health, independent of a diet too high in calories. Meanwhile, there is also a growing argument that demonising a single food is dangerous – and causes confusion that risks us cutting out vital foods.

但到目前为止,科学家还难以证明糖如何独立于高热量饮食之外影响着我们的健康。也有越来越多的声音认为,将某种食物妖魔化十分危险,并且会造成困惑,可能导致我们停止食用至关重要的食物。

But both complex and simple carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules, which are broken down by digestion into glucose and used by every cell in the body to generate energy and fuel the brain. Complex carbohydrates include wholegrains and vegetables. Simple carbohydrates are more easily digested and quickly release sugar into the bloodstream. They include sugars found naturally in the foods we eat, such as fructose, lactose, sucrose and glucose and others, like high fructose corn syrup, which are manmade.

但糖其实是一个广义概念,包括了成分或复杂或简单的碳水化合物。碳水化合物经由人体消化分解成葡萄糖,帮助人体细胞产生能量,并维持大脑运转。复杂的碳水化合物包括全谷物和蔬菜。简单的碳水化合物更容易消化,会迅速将糖释放到血液中,包括天然存在于食物中的糖,譬如果糖、乳糖、蔗糖和葡萄糖,以及其他人造糖,比如高果糖玉米糖浆。

Sweet nothings?

糖是无辜的?

But again, it’s unclear if that means sugar actually causes heart disease or diabetes. Luc Tappy, professor of physiology at the University of Lausanne, is one of many scientists who argue that the main cause of diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure is excess calorie intake, and that sugar is simply one component of this.

但目前还不清楚糖是否真的导致了心脏病或糖尿病。包括瑞士洛桑大学生理学教授塔皮(Luc Tappy)在内的很多科学家认为,造成糖尿病、肥胖症和高血压的主要原因是热量摄入过量,糖只是热量的一种。

“More energy intake than energy expenditure will, in the long term, lead to fat deposition, insulin resistance and a fatty liver, whatever the diet composition,” he says. “In people with a high energy output and a matched energy intake, even a high fructose/sugar diet will be well tolerated.”

“长远来看,无论何种饮食结构,只要能量摄入多于消耗,就会导致脂肪堆积、胰岛素抵抗和脂肪肝,”他说,“而能量消耗和摄入相匹配的人,即使是高果糖/高糖饮食也完全没问题。”

Tappy points out that athletes, for example, often have higher sugar consumption but lower rates of cardiovascular disease: high fructose intake can be metabolised during exercise to increase performance.

塔皮指出,比如运动员的糖消耗量往往更高,但患心血管疾病的几率却更低,为了提高成绩他们会进行运动,能将摄入的大量果糖代谢掉。

Overall, evidence that added sugar directly causes type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity or cancer is thin. Yes, higher intakes are associated with these conditions. But clinical trials have yet to establish that it causes them.

总的来说,添加糖直接导致2型糖尿病、心脏病、肥胖症或癌症的证据不足。添加糖摄入量较高确实与这些疾病有关,但临床试验还没有证实是糖导致了这些疾病。

Sugar also has been associated with addiction… but this finding, too, may not be what it seems. A review published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine in 2017 cited findings that mice can experience sugar withdrawal and argued that sugar produces similar effects to cocaine, such as craving. But the paper was widely accused of misinterpreting the evidence. One key criticism was that the animals were restricted to having sugar for two hours a day: if you allow them to have it whenever they want it, which reflects how we consume it, they don’t show addiction-like behaviours.

常常还说糖会上瘾,但这可能也并非如此。《英国运动医学杂志》2017年发表的一篇文章提到,多项研究发现老鼠可能会出现糖分戒断症状,并认为糖会产生与可卡因类似的作用,比如渴求感。但这篇文章饱受诟病,被认为误解了相关证据。一种批评认为,动物吃糖的时间被限制在一天两小时,如果允许它们像人类一样想吃就吃,就不会出现类似上瘾的行为。

Still, studies have demonstrated other ways in which sugar affects our brains. Matthew Pase, research fellow at Swinburne’s Centre for Human Psychopharmacology in Australia, examined the association between self-reported sugary beverage consumption and markers of brain health determined by MRI scans. Those who drank soft drinks and fruit juices more frequently displayed smaller average brain volumes and poorer memory function. Consuming two sugary drinks per day aged the brain two years compared to those who didn’t drink any at all. But Pase explains that since he only measured fruit juice intake, he can’t be sure that sugar alone is what affects brain health.

但还有很多研究表明,糖会以其他方式影响我们的大脑。澳大利亚斯威本大学人类精神药理学中心的研究员帕塞(Matthew Pase)请被试对象报告他们喝了多少含糖饮料,并用核磁共振扫描他们大脑的健康状况,研究了摄入量与大脑健康的关系。喝汽水和果汁频率更高的人,平均脑容量更小,记忆力更差。每天喝两杯含糖饮料的人大脑比完全不喝的人老两岁。但帕塞说,他只测算了果汁的摄入量,因此无法确定影响大脑健康的是不是只有糖。

来源:BBC爱语吧作者:Penny

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