Trump divides US over what it means to be American

美国人想象力的分裂
时间:2018-11-03 单词数:8360

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导读:卢斯:美国的危机在于它有关美国人本质的想象正在一分为二。一边是以特朗普为代表的民族主义者,另一边是全球主义者。

美国人想象力的分裂_英语新闻

Nations, as the scholar Benedict Anderson put it, are “imagined communities”. America’s crisis is that its imagination is breaking into two. On the one hand there are Donald Trump’s nationalists. On the other are the globalists. These are people who want “the globe to do well, frankly not caring about our country so much”, in Mr Trump’s words. His definition is both offensive and ingenious. It also plays with fire. The improvised explosive devices mailed this week to George Soros, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton might as well have been addressed “globalist”.

正如学者本尼迪克特·安德森(Benedict Anderson)所言,国家是“想象的共同体”。美国的危机在于它的想象正在一分为二。一边是唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)的民族主义者,另一边是全球主义者。用特朗普的话来说,后者希望“全球都过得好,坦率地说,他们不那么关心我们的国家”。他的定义既无礼又巧妙,同时也是在玩火。上周邮寄给乔治·索罗斯(George Soros)、巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)和希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的简易爆炸装置,也可以说是针对“全球主义者”的。

The looming midterm elections are a custody battle over which side owns the American creed. Mr Trump’s critics embrace the term patriotism but declare nationalism taboo. Yet there is nothing inherently racist — or violent — about being a nationalist. Ask most people in India, or Ireland, and they will unashamedly own the label “nationalist”. Their republics were forged after the word was coined. The US republic was born earlier. In the late 18th century nationalists called themselves patriots. In fact, most American liberals are nationalists. They believe their country’s creed is better than others. It is thus worth fighting for. Splitting semantic hairs is no answer to Mr Trump’s challenge.

即将到来的美国中期选举是一场关系到哪一方将拥有美国信仰“监护权”的争夺战。特朗普的批评者支持“爱国主义”这个词,但将民族主义列为禁忌。然而,一个民族主义者并非天然地具有种族主义或暴力倾向。问问印度或爱尔兰的大多数人,他们就会坦然地拥有“民族主义者”的标签。他们的共和国是在这个词被创造出来之后才建立的。美国这个共和国诞生得更早。18世纪晚期,民族主义者自称为爱国者。事实上,大多数美国自由主义者是民族主义者。他们相信自己国家的信仰比别人国家的信仰更好。因此,它值得为之奋斗。面对特朗普的挑战,在词义上纠缠不是解决办法。

Nor is it much use pointing out his factual errors. Mr Trump says that the 7,000-strong caravan of central Americans heading to the US border is riddled with Middle Eastern terrorists and members of drug gangs. Moreover, the caravan is being led by Democrats. People such as Mr Soros are funding the advancing mob. They are trying to stage a globalist takeover, which makes them un-American. Each of Mr Trump’s claims is disprovable. But that is not the point. They play into his base’s imagination. Mr Trump’s nationalism is not gentle. But even the mildest sort requires some suspension of disbelief. As Anderson put it: “Members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the mind of each lives the image of their communion”.

指出他的事实错误也没有太大用处。特朗普表示,前往美国边境的7000多名中美洲人,充斥着中东恐怖分子和贩毒团伙成员。此外,这群人的领导者是民主党人。索罗斯等人正在资助这些前进中的暴民。他们正试图上演一场全球主义者的接管,这让他们变得不像美国人。特朗普的上述每一项指称都是不成立的。但这不是重点。这些指称迎合了他的基础选民的想象。特朗普的民族主义并不温和。但是,即便最温和的那种,也需要某种程度的盲目信仰。正如安德森所说:“即使是最小的国家的成员,也永远不会认识、遇见、甚至听说其他绝大多数成员,但每个人心里都存在着跟他们交流的想象。”

Mr Trump’s skill is that he is driving the Democratic imagination further into a globalist corner. The caravan’s slogan is “people without borders”. Any Democratic attempt to meet Mr Trump halfway — by saying US borders should be enforced — risks being branded as a sellout to a racist policy. Yet that was what Mr Obama did. More illegal immigrants were deported during Mr Obama’s administration — more than 2m — than all his predecessors combined. Today that stance would be untenable. Mr Trump has succeeded in turning immigration, a core part of the American story, into a question of theology. Republicans believe in jobs for people from somewhere. Democrats support mob rights for people from anywhere.

特朗普的技巧是,他正进一步把民主党的想象逼向一个全球化的角落。上述那群中美洲人的口号是“无国界的人”。民主党与特朗普妥协的任何尝试——即表示美国边境应当强力执法——都有可能被贴上向种族主义政策投降的标签。然而,这正是奥巴马所做的。在奥巴马政府执政期间,被驱逐的非法移民超过200万,比他所有前任驱逐的总和还要多。如今,这种立场将站不住脚。特朗普已成功地把移民——美国历史的一个核心部分——变成了一个神学问题。共和党人相信工作岗位是为某个地方的人提供的。民主党人支持来自任何地方的人的暴民权利。

It is a contest of faiths over the essence of what it is to be American. It cannot be won by facts and figures. The Democratic hope is that Mr Trump will be repudiated at the ballot box next month. In the meantime, they would prefer the conversation to go away. That cannot work for long. Whether Republicans lose or retain the House of Representatives on November 6, Mr Trump is running a dress rehearsal of his 2020 re-election campaign, which will be about culture, not fiscal policy. As the US economy slows down, Mr Trump will only step up his attacks on globalists. They will need a better story than they offer today.

这是一场关于美国人本质的信仰之争。靠事实和数据无法取胜。民主党的希望是,特朗普将在下个月的投票中失利。与此同时,他们更希望这场对话能够结束。这种愿望不可能长久。无论共和党人在11月6日能不能保住对众议院的控制,特朗普都在为他2020年竞选连任做一次彩排,届时竞选的关键将是文化,而不是财政政策。在美国经济增长放缓之际,特朗普只会加大对全球主义者的攻击。他们需要一个比今天他们所讲的更为精彩的故事。

People often wonder why Mr Trump bears particular animus towards Germany’s Angela Merkel. The answer is that Germany’s chancellor is what Mr Trump would like the Democrats to be. Ms Merkel’s career has never recovered from her decision to allow in roughly 1m Syrian refugees in 2015. Her move was textbook globalist. It implied the German government cared as much about people from far away as their own. Mr Obama let in fewer than 20,000 Syrian refugees. Even that was too much for Mr Trump. His vice-president, Mike Pence, when governor of Indiana, said he would not let a single Syrian family enter the state. The next two years are only likely to be uglier.

人们常常想知道,为什么特朗普对德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)怀有特别的敌意。答案是,这位德国总理恰好是特朗普希望民主党人成为的样子。在2015年决定允许约100万叙利亚难民入境之后,默克尔的政治生涯一直尚未从中恢复过来。她的举动是标准的全球主义。这意味着,德国政府对遥远地方的人和对本国国民一样关心。奥巴马只接纳了不到2万名叙利亚难民。即便这个数字,特朗普也觉得太高了。他的副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)担任印第安纳州州长时曾说,他不会让一个叙利亚家庭进入该州。接下来的两年只可能会更丑陋。

Democrats reacted badly to Mr Trump’s ownership of the word “nationalist” because it hinted at a silent “white”. Mr Trump is corralling Democrats into a Merkel trap. The Democratic instinct is to say that the American creed welcomes all-comers of any faith and colour. At its best that is what America stands for. The same is true of Ms Merkel’s Germany. But it comes at a steep political cost nowadays. Democrats will need to reach deeper into their imagination than she did.

对于特朗普占有“民族主义者”这个说法,民主党人的反应很糟糕,因为它暗示了一个沉默的“白人”。特朗普正在把民主党人赶进默克尔陷阱。民主党人的本能是说,美国的信仰欢迎任何信仰和肤色的人。在最理想的情况下,这就是美国所代表的意义。默克尔领导下的德国也是如此。但如今,这需要付出高昂的政治代价。民主党人将需要比她更深入地挖掘想象力。

来源:金融时报爱语吧作者:爱语吧

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