Blue Whales Have Changed Their Tune

蓝鲸声频发生变化
时间:2018-12-05 单词数:4300

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导读:蓝鲸音高正在慢慢降低,这种长期且普遍的现象背后到底隐藏着什么原因?让我们听听科学家给出的各种解释。

‘蓝鲸声频+降低’科学解释__双语新闻

In the last few decades, blue whale calls have been getting lower in pitch—and a rebound in their numbers may be the reason. Christopher Intagliata reports.

在近数十年间,蓝鲸叫声的音高已经变得越来越低--克里斯托弗·因塔格里报道称,这可能是因为蓝鲸的数量有所反弹增加。

Blue whales are the largest animals ever to exist on Earth. But they’re still tough to track. Because they live underwater where we can’t easily see them--and often in remote areas, like the southern ocean. But the whales’ songs can travel hundreds of kilometers underwater… so scientists often listen for them instead. (That’s sped up 10 times so you can hear it)

蓝鲸是目前地球上现存的体积最大的动物,但是人类仍然很难捕捉到它们的踪迹。原因是它们生活在我们难以窥见的海底世界---而且它们经常在类似南大洋这样的遥远海域活动。但是由于蓝鲸的叫声在水下世界可以传播数百公里远,所以尽管看不见,科学家却可以经常听见它们的叫声。(这里叫声放大了10倍,所以你可以听见它们)

But these eavesdropping biologists have noticed a mysterious trend: that certain blue whale calls are gradually lowering in pitch, over time. For example, here’s a call from 2002, followed by one from 2017.

但是这些监测蓝鲸叫声的生物学家们却注意到了一个令人疑惑的趋势:某些蓝鲸的音高正字在慢慢降低,并且在很长的一段时间里都是如此。这里有两段音频分别来自2012年和2017年,我们可以听一听。

It has been observed in blue whale populations worldwide. So this phenomenon has to have a worldwide explanation. Emmanuelle Leroy is a bioacoustician at the University of New South Wales in Australia, who did the work at the University of Brest in France.

艾曼纽·勒罗伊是澳大利亚新南威尔士大学的生物声学家,曾在法国的布雷斯特大学开展过这项研究工作,她表示:“全球范围内的蓝鲸都已进行了声频监测,所以这种音高降低的现象背后肯定有一个普遍解释。”

Her team confirmed the phenomenon holds true for populations of blue whales in the southern Indian Ocean too. And they suggest one reason may be that whale numbers have rebounded from the days of Captain Ahab. More whales means individuals don’t have to shout as loud to be heard by other whales. And because of an anatomical peculiarity in the way whales sing, the softer they sing, the lower the pitch.

勒罗伊女士的研究团队已经确认这种现象同样存在于南印度洋海域的蓝鲸群体中。而且他们认为导致这种现象的原因之一可能是自“亚哈船长时代”过去之后蓝鲸数量有所增加。蓝鲸数量越来越多意味着个体不必通过大声呼唤的方式与同伴联系沟通。除此之外,由于蓝鲸发声具有自己的解剖学特征,所以它们叫声越柔,音高越低。

The scientists have another theory too, which may be acting in concert with the first: which is that whales are singing more softly—and therefore more deeply—because increasingly acidic ocean waters carry their calls further. The full write-up is in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

科学家们还提出了另一种理论,该理论可能与第一种相一致:那就是蓝鲸叫得越柔---自然声音也就越低沉--因为酸性越来越高的海水能够将它们的叫声传得更远。关于这个理论的完整文章已经发表在《地球物理研究杂志:海洋》上。

Leroy and her team noticed one other short-term trend: that southern blue whales’ songs actually get higher in pitch during the Austral summer. Perhaps in an effort to be heard over cracking icebergs.

勒罗伊和她的团队还注意到另一短期趋势:在南部,南边的蓝鲸在夏天叫声的音高要高些。也许是为了让自己的声音盖过冰川碎裂的声音,从而和同伴沟通。

Like when you put an ice cube in your drink, you can hear it crack. So it’s the same for an iceberg - so it will be really loud and you can hear it across an oceanic basin.

“就好比当你在饮料里放一块冰,你能听到冰块碎裂的声音。这跟夏季冰川崩裂是一个道理--可想而知冰川崩裂的声音有多大,甚至你在横跨海洋盆地的地方都能听见。”

To solve these mysteries more definitively, the scientists say that we’ll need to keep listening, and monitor the changing chemical and acoustic properties of the oceans. To see which of these ideas are borne out. And which don’t hold water.

为了能够给出关于这些谜团更为确切的答案,科学家们表示我们需要继续监测蓝鲸的叫声以及海洋不断变化的化学和声学特性。看看现有观点中哪些会得到证实,哪些又会站不住脚。

Mrs Hemming says once a lucky or unlucky notion gets into your head it is "very hard to un-know it" and more of an effort to avoid it than go along with it.

赫默夫人说,一旦幸运或倒霉的想法进入你的头脑,“那是很难不被察觉的”,而我们应该更努力的去避免它,而不是随波逐流。

In the last few decades, blue whale calls have been getting lower in pitch—and a rebound in their numbers may be the reason. Christopher Intagliata reports.

在近数十年间,蓝鲸叫声的音高已经变得越来越低--克里斯托弗·因塔格里报道称,这可能是因为蓝鲸的数量有所反弹增加。

Blue whales are the largest animals ever to exist on Earth. But they’re still tough to track. Because they live underwater where we can’t easily see them--and often in remote areas, like the southern ocean. But the whales’ songs can travel hundreds of kilometers underwater… so scientists often listen for them instead. (That’s sped up 10 times so you can hear it)

蓝鲸是目前地球上现存的体积最大的动物,但是人类仍然很难捕捉到它们的踪迹。原因是它们生活在我们难以窥见的海底世界---而且它们经常在类似南大洋这样的遥远海域活动。但是由于蓝鲸的叫声在水下世界可以传播数百公里远,所以尽管看不见,科学家却可以经常听见它们的叫声。(这里叫声放大了10倍,所以你可以听见它们)

But these eavesdropping biologists have noticed a mysterious trend: that certain blue whale calls are gradually lowering in pitch, over time. For example, here’s a call from 2002, followed by one from 2017.

但是这些监测蓝鲸叫声的生物学家们却注意到了一个令人疑惑的趋势:某些蓝鲸的音高正字在慢慢降低,并且在很长的一段时间里都是如此。这里有两段音频分别来自2012年和2017年,我们可以听一听。

It has been observed in blue whale populations worldwide. So this phenomenon has to have a worldwide explanation. Emmanuelle Leroy is a bioacoustician at the University of New South Wales in Australia, who did the work at the University of Brest in France.

艾曼纽·勒罗伊是澳大利亚新南威尔士大学的生物声学家,曾在法国的布雷斯特大学开展过这项研究工作,她表示:“全球范围内的蓝鲸都已进行了声频监测,所以这种音高降低的现象背后肯定有一个普遍解释。”

Her team confirmed the phenomenon holds true for populations of blue whales in the southern Indian Ocean too. And they suggest one reason may be that whale numbers have rebounded from the days of Captain Ahab. More whales means individuals don’t have to shout as loud to be heard by other whales. And because of an anatomical peculiarity in the way whales sing, the softer they sing, the lower the pitch.

勒罗伊女士的研究团队已经确认这种现象同样存在于南印度洋海域的蓝鲸群体中。而且他们认为导致这种现象的原因之一可能是自“亚哈船长时代”过去之后蓝鲸数量有所增加。蓝鲸数量越来越多意味着个体不必通过大声呼唤的方式与同伴联系沟通。除此之外,由于蓝鲸发声具有自己的解剖学特征,所以它们叫声越柔,音高越低。

The scientists have another theory too, which may be acting in concert with the first: which is that whales are singing more softly—and therefore more deeply—because increasingly acidic ocean waters carry their calls further. The full write-up is in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

科学家们还提出了另一种理论,该理论可能与第一种相一致:那就是蓝鲸叫得越柔---自然声音也就越低沉--因为酸性越来越高的海水能够将它们的叫声传得更远。关于这个理论的完整文章已经发表在《地球物理研究杂志:海洋》上。

Leroy and her team noticed one other short-term trend: that southern blue whales’ songs actually get higher in pitch during the Austral summer. Perhaps in an effort to be heard over cracking icebergs.

勒罗伊和她的团队还注意到另一短期趋势:在南部,南边的蓝鲸在夏天叫声的音高要高些。也许是为了让自己的声音盖过冰川碎裂的声音,从而和同伴沟通。

Like when you put an ice cube in your drink, you can hear it crack. So it’s the same for an iceberg - so it will be really loud and you can hear it across an oceanic basin.

“就好比当你在饮料里放一块冰,你能听到冰块碎裂的声音。这跟夏季冰川崩裂是一个道理--可想而知冰川崩裂的声音有多大,甚至你在横跨海洋盆地的地方都能听见。”

To solve these mysteries more definitively, the scientists say that we’ll need to keep listening, and monitor the changing chemical and acoustic properties of the oceans. To see which of these ideas are borne out. And which don’t hold water.

为了能够给出关于这些谜团更为确切的答案,科学家们表示我们需要继续监测蓝鲸的叫声以及海洋不断变化的化学和声学特性。看看现有观点中哪些会得到证实,哪些又会站不住脚。

来源:科学美国人爱语吧作者:Alison

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