如何进行辩论,才能获得更好的效果? 2016-11-29 编辑:Summer (纽约时报)

双语

导读:生活中,人们经常会进行大大小小的辩论,如何进行辩论才能获得更好的效果?

辩论_英语新闻

Listen Carefully

认真聆听

The goal should be to state your views and to hear theirs. It should not be: I am not leaving until you admit that you are wrong, or here is what I believe, and I am not budging from this.

辩论的目的应该是阐明自己的观点,并听取他人的观点。不应该是:你不承认你错了我就不走,或这就是我的观点,我不会退让的。

And when you listen, go all in. Don’t half-listen while figuring out what you’re going to say next.

听的时候,要全身心投入。不要一边似听非听一边考虑自己接下来说什么。

Don’t ‘Drop the Anchor’

不要“抛锚”

Some people start an argument by staking their position and refusing to budge, an impulse that Dr. Cuddy called “dropping the anchor.”

一些人以表明自己的立场为辩论的开始,并且拒绝让步。卡迪称这种冲动为“抛锚”。

Instead, try to understand the other person’s point of view; it does not mean you have to agree with him or her, or that you are abandoning deeply felt objections to, for example, racism or sexism, she said.

她说,相反,要试着去理解对方的观点;这并不是说你必须同意他或她的观点,或是放弃你深信不疑的反对立场,比如对种族主义或性别歧视。

Mind Your Body Language

注意肢体语言

Your body language can send messages that are more compelling than the words coming out of your mouth.

你的肢体语言传递出来的信息,可能比从你嘴里说出来的话更有说服力。

Try to avoid gestures that are defensive, like crossing your arms or clenching your jaw. Maintain eye contact in a way that is not a stare-down. Lean forward slightly to show you are interested.

尽量避免防御性的动作,如抱臂或紧闭牙关。保持眼神交流,但不要死死地盯着对方。身体微微前倾,表示你很感兴趣。

Know the Facts

了解事实

A good argument is supported by evidence, but that is just a starting point. Sometimes, especially with political back-and-forths, one side will look only at evidence supporting its own position, conveniently leaving out the full picture, Dr. Gutting noted. “An effective argument would have to take account of all the relevant evidence,” he said.

一场精彩的辩论需要证据的支撑,但这只是起点。古廷指出,有时候,特别是在政治交锋中,一方会只关注支持己方立场的证据,而对事情的全貌假装看不见。“一场有效的辩论必须考虑到所有相关的证据,”他说。

Speak and Listen Fearlessly

勇敢地表达和聆听

The condition for a conversation has to be that you are unafraid to speak courageously, and you are unafraid to tell your partner exactly what it is that you think about the world.

交谈的条件是你必须勇敢地发言,不要害怕告诉同伴你对这个世界的看法。

But a two-way argument also requires fearless listening. One of the conditions for the possibility of a fruitful argument is to allow for some kind of opening up in myself to hear.

但双向的辩论还要求勇敢地聆听。要想展开富有成效的讨论,其中一个条件是我自己在某种程度上开放自己,倾听对方的观点。

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