你能活多久?关于世界寿命排行的九大事实 2018-06-14 编辑:Penny (BBC)

双语

导读:随着医药卫生发展和进步,全球人口寿命不断上升。BBC推出一个计算预期寿命的推算表,并总结出了影响全球人口寿命的九大规律和结论。

你能活多久?关于世界寿命排行的九大事实_最新英语新闻

These are just some of the findings from the BBC’s life expectancy calculator, which uses data from the Global Burden of Disease project by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).

BBC预期寿命计算法使用的数据来自于"全球疾病负担调查" (the Global Burden of Disease)。它是健康指标与评估研究所(the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation)的一个项目。使用该计算法发现了一些有意思的事情。

1. We’re living longer

1.我们的寿命在延长

Global life expectancy has risen more than seven years since 1990. People around the world are living longer thanks in part to lower death rates from heart disease in high-income countries and fewer child deaths in low-income countries. Improved health care, better sanitation and medical advances in treating diseases have also contributed to the rise.

自从1990年以来,全球人口寿命增长7岁。全球人口寿命延长,部分原因是高收入国家心脏病死亡率下降。同时,低收入国家儿童死亡率减少。当然,医疗改善、卫生条件提高以及医学进步都是寿命提高的原因。

Healthy life expectancy lso rose by 6.3 years.

与此同时,人们的健康寿命也上升6.3年。

2. Western Europe dominates the top

2.西欧人均寿命最长

Fourteen of the top 20 countries for life expectancy are in Europe, but East Asia tops the pile overall: people born today in Japan and Singapore can expect to live to 84 years old.

全球寿命排行榜前20位的国家中,有14个欧洲国家和地区。但是东亚国家数据要更好,日本和新加坡出生的人口预期可以活到84岁。

3. African countries dominate the bottom

3.非洲国家垫底

All but two of the bottom 20 countries are from Africa.

排在最后20个国家中,有18个在非洲。

Children born in 2016 in Lesotho and the Central African Republic have a life expectancy of only 50 years, 34 fewer than those born in Japan.

例如,2016年在莱索托以及中非共和国出生的儿童平均预期寿命为50岁,比日本人少了34岁。

Meanwhile, decades of war, drought and lawlessness make Afghanistan the only Asian country near the bottom, with a life expectancy of only 58.

这是因为这两个国家饱经内战。同时,连年的战争、干旱等因素使阿富汗成为排在最后几名的唯一亚洲国家。人均预期寿命为58岁。

4. Women generally outlive men

4. 女性寿命总的来说比男性寿命长

Women outlive men in 195 out of 198 countries, and on average by six years. However, in some countries that gap is as much as 11.

在接受调查的198个国家中,195个国家中的女性都比男性寿命长,平均多活6岁。在有些国家,女性比男性甚至多活11岁。

The three countries where men outlive women are the Republic of Congo, Kuwait and Mauritania.

但在刚果共和国、科威特和毛里塔尼亚这3个国家,男性寿命比女性长。

5. In Ethiopia, life expectancy rose 19 years

5.埃塞俄比亚,平均寿命增长19岁

Since 1990, life expectancy has improved in 96% of countries.

自1990年以来,96%国家的人口寿命有所提高。

Biggest improvements have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia, still recovering from famine in 1990, had a life expectancy of only 47. Babies born there in 2016 could expect to live 19 years longer thanks partly to significant decreases in respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases, such as rotavirus and cholera.

改善程度最大的要数撒哈拉以南的非洲国家,其中埃塞俄比亚1990年平均寿命只有47岁(受饥荒影响)。但2016年出生的人预期寿命会增加19岁,部分原因是呼吸道感染以及腹泻疾病等大大降低。

6. However, life expectancy fell in eight countries

6. 8个国家人均寿命下降

As well as having some of the biggest rises in life expectancy, sub-Saharan Africa also has four of the eight countries where life expectancy has fallen since 1990.The biggest drop was in Lesotho, where according to UN estimates, one in four people are living with HIV - the second highest rate in the world.

除了在预期寿命方面一些国家出现了较大的增长之外,还有一些国家的预期寿命发生了降低,自1990年以来,在8个寿命降低的国家中,有4个是撒哈拉以南非洲国家,其中最严重的是莱索托。根据联合国估计,该国四分之一的人是艾滋病毒携带者。

Babies born in neighbouring South Africa in 2016 can expect to live to 62 - two years fewer than their compatriots born in 1990. During this period, the country has struggled with the effects of a widespread HIV epidemic.

南非国家2016年出生的人平均预期寿命为62岁,而1990年出生的人平均寿命却是64,其主要原因也是受艾滋病泛滥的影响。

7. Cross-border differences

7.地区化影响

Life expectancy can be surprisingly localised - some neighbouring countries had almost 20 years between them. For example, cross the border from China into Afghanistan, and life expectancy falls by more than 18 years.

影响人口平均寿命的因素很多,两个相邻国家之间可以有巨大差别。例如,中国与阿富汗,两国人口平均寿命相差18岁。

And Mali - which has suffered years of terrorism and civil strife this decade - has a life expectancy of only 62, but people born in neighbouring Algeria can expect to live to 77.

另外,位于西非的内陆国家马里受连年恐怖主义以及内战干扰,人均寿命只有62岁,但它的邻国阿尔及利亚平均寿命则为77岁。

8. War has a devastating impact

8. 战争对人口平均寿命有毁灭性影响

Back in 2010, Syria was ranked 65th in the world for life expectancy, in the top third of countries. However, years of unrelenting war have seen it drop to 142nd place in 2016.

2010年叙利亚内战前,该国人均寿命排在前65位,但在2016年,叙利亚人口寿命下降到142位。

Meanwhile, at the height of the Rwandan genocide in 1994, life expectancy at birth was only 11 years.

与此同时,位于中非的卢旺达1994年发生种族大屠杀最严重时期,人口预期寿命仅为11岁。

9. As do famine and natural disasters

9. 饥荒和自然灾害同样减寿

North Korea suffered a devastating famine between 1994 and 1998 that knocked several years off its life expectancy until the early 2000s.

朝鲜在1994到1998年之间发生严重饥荒,导致人口平均寿命下降,直到2000年以后才有所好转。

More than 200,000 people are estimated to have died from the Haiti earthquake in 2010. However, life expectancy did recover the following year.

2010年,加勒比海岛国海地地震估计造成20万人死亡,使该国预期寿命受到影响,虽然后来有所恢复。

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